Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research


James A. Hallock Invited to Deliver Miriam Friedman Memorial Lecture

James A. Hallock, M.D., President Emeritus of the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG®) and FAIMER Senior Scholar, has been invited to conduct the Sociedad Española de Educación Médica (SEDEM) Miriam Friedman Memorial Lecture at the 2009 annual conference of the Association for Medical Education in Europe (AMEE). The topic of Dr. Hallock’s lecture will be “Evolution of Clinical Skills Assessment: Miriam Would Be Proud!”

Miriam Friedman Ben-David was a leader in the field of medical education and, in particular, clinical skills assessment. She served as Co-Director of ECFMG’s Clinical Skills Assessment (CSA®) program. From 1998 to 2004, the ECFMG CSA evaluated the clinical skills of international medical graduates seeking to enter postgraduate medical education in the United States. ECFMG’s experience in developing and delivering the CSA forms the basis of its role as a partner, with the National Board of Medical Examiners® (NBME®), in the Clinical Skills Evaluation Collaboration (CSEC), which is responsible for the delivery of the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE®) Step 2 Clinical Skills (CS) examination to both international and U.S./Canadian medical school graduates. Dr. Hallock’s lecture will reflect on the evolution of clinical skills assessment and the impact of Dr. Friedman Ben-David’s contributions to the field.

A list of selected references that focus on the work of Dr. Friedman Ben-David and her colleagues appears below.

Ben-David MF. Life beyond OSCE. Medical Teacher. 2003 May; 25(3):239-240.

Ben-David MF, Boulet JR, Burdick WP, Ziv A, Hambleton RK, Gary NE. Issues of validity and reliability concerning who scores the post-encounter patient-progress note. Academic Medicine. 1997 Oct; 72(10 Suppl 1):S79-S81.

Ben-David MF, Klass DJ, Boulet J, De Champlain A, King AM, Pohl HS, Gary NE. The performance of foreign medical graduates on the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) standardized patient examination prototype: a collaborative study of the NBME and the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG). Medical Education. 1999 Jun; 33(6):439-446.

Ben-David MF, Snadden D, Hesketh A. Linking appraisal of PRHO professional competence of junior doctors to their education. Medical Teacher. 2004 Feb; 26(1):63-70.

Boulet JR, Ben-David MF, Burdick W, Ziv A, Gary N, Hambleton RK. An Investigation of the Sources of Measurement Error in the Post-Encounter Written Scores from Standardized Patient Examinations. Advances in Health Science Education Theory and Practice. 1998; 3(2):89-100.

Boulet JR, Ben-David MF, Ziv A, Burdick WP, Curtis M, Peitzman S, Gary NE. Using standardized patients to assess the interpersonal skills of physicians. Academic Medicine. 1998 Oct; 73(10 Suppl):S94-S96.

Burdick WP, Ben-David MF, Swisher L, Becher J, Magee D, McNamara R, Zwanger M. Reliability of performance-based clinical skill assessment of emergency medicine residents. Academic Emergency Medicine. 1996 Dec; 3(12):1119-1123.

Friedman M, Mennin SP. Rethinking critical issues in performance assessment. Academic Medicine. 1991 Jul; 66(7):390-395.

Friedman M, Prywes M. [Internship evaluation by Israeli medical graduates]. Harefuah. 1988 Jan 15;114(2):83-87. Hebrew.

Friedman M, Prywes M, Benbassat J. Variability in doctors’ problem-solving as measured by open-ended written patient simulations. Medical Education. 1989 May;23(3):270-275.

Friedman M, Sutnick AI, Stillman PL, Norcini JJ, Anderson SM, Williams RG, Henning G, Reeves MJ. The use of standardized patients to evaluate the spoken-English proficiency of foreign medical graduates. Academic Medicine. 1991 Sep;66(9 Suppl):S61-S63.

Friedman M, Sutnick AI, Stillman PL, Regan MB, Norcini JJ. The relationship of spoken-English proficiencies of foreign medical school graduates to their clinical competence. Academic Medicine. 1993 Oct;68(10 Suppl):S1-S3.

Gary NE, Sabo MM, Shafron ML, Wald MK, Ben-David MF, Kelly WC. Graduates of foreign medical schools: progression to certification by the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates. Academic Medicine. 1997 Jan;72(1):17-22.

Gómez Sáez JM, Pujol Farriols R, Martínez Carretero JM, Blay Pueyo C, Jaurrieta Mas E, Friedman M, Sutnick A. [The COMBELL project. Analysis of the medical clinical competence]. Medicina Cliníca. 1995 Nov 18;105(17):649-651. Spanish.

Henkin Y, Friedman M, Bouskila D, Kushnir D, Glick S. The use of patients as student evaluators. Medical Teacher. 1990;12(3-4):279-289.

Keynan A, Friedman M, Benbassat J. Reliability of global rating scales in the assessment of clinical competence of medical students. Medical Education. 1987 Nov;21(6):477-481.

Lunenfeld E, Weinreb B, Lavi Y, Amiel GE, Friedman M. Assessment of emergency medicine: a comparison of an experimental objective structured clinical examination with a practical examination. Medical Education. 1991 Jan;25(1):38-44.

Mires GJ, Ben-David MF, Preece PE, Smith B. Educational benefits of student self-marking of short-answer questions. Medical Teacher. 2001 Sep;23(5):462-466.

Phillip M, Friedman M, Benor D. Problem-based clinical confrontation modules planned and conducted by students. Israeli Journal of Medical Science. 1987 Sep-Oct;23(9-10):1035-1037.

Sachdeva AK, Loiacono LA, Amiel GE, Blair PG, Friedman M, Roslyn JJ. Variability in the clinical skills of residents entering training programs in surgery. Surgery. 1995 Aug;118(2):300-308; discussion 308-9.

Sensi S, Ben-David MF, Guagnano MT, Merlitti D, Pace-Palitti V, Danieli G, Gabrielli A, Vettore L, Benini F, Capelli MC, Bartoli E, Tenore A, Bernasconi C, Grignani G, Monga G, Del Prever EB, Cavallo-Perin P, Massè A, Pagliardi G, Curtoni S. [Assessment of clinical competence of medical school graduates in Italy with standardized patients. The opinion of the examinees]. Recenti Progressi in Medicina. 1998 Nov;89(11):575-577. Italian.

Stern DT, Ben-David MF, De Champlain A, Hodges B, Wojtczak A, Schwarz MR. Ensuring global standards for medical graduates: a pilot study of international standard-setting. Medical Teacher. 2005 May;27(3):207-213.

Stillman PL, Regan MB, Haley HL, Norcini JJ, Friedman M, Sutnick AI. The use of a patient note to evaluate clinical skills of first-year residents who are graduates of foreign medical schools. Academic Medicine. 1992 Oct;67(10 Suppl):S57-S59.

Sutnick AI, Stillman PL, Norcini JJ, Friedman M, Regan MB, Williams RG, Kachur EK, Haggerty MA, Wilson MP. ECFMG assessment of clinical competence of graduates of foreign medical schools. Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates. JAMA. 1993 Sep 1;270(9):1041-1045.

Sutnick AI, Stillman PL, Norcini JJ, Friedman M, Williams RG, Trace DA, Schwartz MA, Wang Y, Wilson MP. Pilot study of the use of the ECFMG clinical competence assessment to provide profiles of clinical competencies of graduates of foreign medical schools for residency directors. Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates. Academic Medicine. 1994 Jan;69(1):65-67.

Ziv A, Ben-David MF, Sutnick AI, Gary NE. Lessons learned from six years of international administrations of the ECFMG’s SP-based clinical skills assessment. Academic Medicine. 1998 Jan;73(1):84-91.



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