SAFRI Session Held in Conjunction with South African Association of Health Educationalists (SAAHE) Meeting, June 2008

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Nigerian FAIMER Fellows at SAAHE: Amam Mbakwem, Bosede Afolabi, Oluwabunmi Olapade-Olaopa, Christy Okoromah, Yinusa Raji, and Efosa Oviasu
Nigerian FAIMER Fellows in attendance at SAAHE, from left to right: Amam Mbakwem, Bosede Afolabi, Oluwabunmi Olapade-Olaopa, Christy Okoromah, Yinusa Raji, and Efosa Oviasu.

More than 20 FAIMER Institute alumni from five African countries (South Africa, Zambia, Nigeria, Uganda, and Ethiopia) and four FAIMER faculty members (from the United States, United Kingdom, and Malaysia) joined the 2008 Southern Africa-FAIMER Regional Institute (SAFRI) Fellows at the South African Association of Health Educationalists (SAAHE) meeting of about 300 health professions educators at Stellenbosch University on June 19-21, 2008. A total of 22 posters and oral presentations were presented by 13 FAIMER alumni (indicated below in bold):

Bezuidenhout J, Young G. The odyssey of the critical professional. SAAHE 2008:52.

FAIMER Institute alumni and faculty: Amam Mbakwem, Janet Grant, Efosa Oviasu, David Cameron, Juanita Bezuidenhout, Vanessa Burch, Oluwabunmi Olapade-Olaopa, Yinusa Raji, Bosede Afolabi, Enoch Kwizera, Page Morahan, Elsie Kiguli-Malwadde, Ben van Heerden, Marietjie van Rooyen, Christina Tan, Solomon Genet, Sarah Kiguli, Francois Cilliers, Jacqueline van Wyk, and Ara Tekian
FAIMER Institute alumni and faculty, from left to right: Amam Mbakwem, Janet Grant, Efosa Oviasu, David Cameron, Juanita Bezuidenhout, Vanessa Burch, Oluwabunmi Olapade-Olaopa, Yinusa Raji, Bosede Afolabi, Enoch Kwizera, Page Morahan, Elsie Kiguli-Malwadde, Ben van Heerden, Marietjie van Rooyen, Christina Tan, Solomon Genet, Sarah Kiguli, Francois Cilliers, Jacqueline van Wyk, and Ara Tekian.

Burch V and FAIMER. Clinical practice intentions of African-trained medical students – a case study of 10 medical schools. SAHHE 2008:54

Cameron D. Breaking bad news – can the film, Wit, help students to reflect on the complexities of dying? SAAHE 2008:55.

Van Wyk JM, McKinley D, Burch V, Cameron D, Cilliers F. The effect of gender on physicians’ career intentions: a report from South Africa. SAAHE 2008:168.

FAIMER Institute Alumni, Faculty, and SAFRI Fellows
FAIMER Institute Alumni, Faculty, and SAFRI Fellows

Hugo JFM, van Rooyen M, Blitz JJ, Cameron D. Mentoring consultation skills through a structured assessment. SAAHE 2008:73.

Blitz JJ, Cameron D, van Rooyen M, Hugo JFM. Action learning for curriculum development. SAAHE 2008:127.

van Rooyen M, Blitz JJ, Cameron D, Hugo JFM. Student behaviour informs learning opportunities: HIV exposure incidents. SAAHE 2008:165.

Cilliers FJ, Adendorff HJ, Bitzer EM, Herman N, Schuwirth LWT, van der Vleuten CPM. Assessment impacts on learning, you say? Please explain how. SAAHE 2008:58.

Cameron NA, van Heerden BB, Cilliers FJ, van Zyl ME. Medical student electives: how do they compare with other learning opportunities? SAAHE 2008:128.

deVilliers MR, van Heusden M, van Heerden B. Evaluation of the clinical progress interventions for medical students not demonstrating academic progress. SAAHE 2008:60.

Louw AJN, Gerber MF, Meyer CJ, Strijdom JG, Cameron N, Beukes S, van Heerden BB, van Heusden M. New interdisciplinary foundation phase for health sciences at Stellenbosch University. SAAHE 2008:81.

van Heerden BB, Aldrich CA, du Plessis SA, Jemwa GT, de Jager R, Louw AJN. Predicting student success in the first year of a medical curriculum using neural network analysis. SAAHE 2008:111.

Wilson van Aarde NW, Bouhuijs P, Conradie HH, Rueter H, van Heerden BB, Marais BJ. Perceived educational value of a rural clinical rotation for medical students. SAAHE 2008:114.

Higgins-Opitz SB, McLean M, van Wyk J, Moodley K, Naidoo SS. Final year medical students: perceptions of the practice of medicine. SAAHE 2008:72.

Kwizera EN. Post-graduate training preferences of Walter Sisulu University medical graduates. SAAHE 2008:78.

Garcia-Jardon ME, Blanco-Blanco EV, Kwizera EN, Stepien A, Vasaikar S. Correlation between continuous assessment, final exam and final mark for MB ChB at Walter Sisulu University. SAAHE 2008:135.

Kiguli SK. Addressing the gaps in paediatrics clinical clerkship through south to south collaboration. SAAHE 2008:142.

Kiguli-Malwadde EK. Learning radiology in the problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum at the Faculty of Medicine, Makerere University. SAAHE 2008:143.

Mbakwem AC, Oke DA, Ajuluchukwu JNA, Amadi CA, Adanijo MO, Ajoku N. Assessment of medical students’ attitude to the introduction of communication and counseling skills training. SAAHE 2008:146.

Oviasu E, Omeumu CE. Clinical skills evaluation in a resource constrained Nigerian environment. SAAHE 2008:155.

Raji Y, Ajani RS, Shittu OI. Admission scores and students’ performance in preclinical examinations. SAAHE 2008:161.

van Rooyen M. Prof, I’m tired and stressed! SAAHE 2008:167.

In addition, 2005 FAIMER Institute Fellow Christina Tan, M.B.B.S., was invited by the SAAHE Organising Committee to deliver one of the plenary lectures, entitled “Assessing the Assessors.” The following comments from 2007 FAIMER Institute Fellow Amam Mbakwem, M.B.B.S., Senior Lecturer, University of Lagos, illustrate the usefulness of FAIMER’s support in advancing the field of health professions education: “The meeting in South Africa was quite rich in content. For me there was a deepening of some of the concepts which are quite new for those of us not so versed in medical education. The mix of international speakers allowed one to see the two sides of the coin on some of the burning issues in training or assessment methods and then pitch your tent when you decide on what makes sense to you and will work in your environment. I presented a part of my project and … had interesting comments and questions from other participants. I hope to develop the manuscript and come along with it during our second session to get some more comments. Also, contacts and links to other health educators in South Africa and likelihood of collaborative work were made. Also we gleaned some information as to how SAFRI was being run which we could piggy-back on when WAFRI [West Africa-FAIMER Regional Institute] takes off. There is also the social aspect to it. It was so nice meeting the South African FAIMER fellows again. Also I could put faces to some of the listserv contributors from that region.”

(posted September 3, 2008; updated October 3, 2008)

6th Asia Pacific Medical Education Conference: February 19-22, 2009

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Following the success of the past five Asia Pacific Medical Education Conferences (APMEC), the Medical Education Unit of Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, will once again organize and host the next meeting, the 6th APMEC, from February 19-22, 2009 at the LT 27 (Lim Seng Tjoe Lecture Theatre) National University of Singapore, Singapore.

The theme for the 6th APMEC is “Energizing the Educational Mission of Medical Schools: Trends, Issues, Priorities, Strategies.” APMEC expects more than 450 medical educators, teachers, and health administrators in the Asia Pacific region and beyond to attend the conference.

There will be a specially organized FAIMER Forum at the meeting on February 21, 2009. FAIMER Institute alumni, Rashmi Vyas (PHIL 2003), Tejinder Singh (PHIL 2003), and Thomas V. Chacko (PHIL 2004) will be participating in this forum entitled “Developing the Field of Medical Education in India.”

Visit the APMEC website for more details.

International Congress on Implementation of WFME Standards in Curricula of Undergraduate Medical Education: November 7-9, 2008

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The Ministry of Health and Medical Education of the Islamic Republic of Iran, in collaboration with the World Federation for Medical Education (WFME), is hosting an International Congress on Implementation of WFME Standards in Curricula of Undergraduate Medical Education. The Congress will take place November 7-9, 2008, on Kish Island, Islamic Republic of Iran. Themes will include: practical tips and guidelines regarding global reports of the implementation of the WFME standards; content of curricula and curriculum outcomes; teaching and learning methods; integrated curriculum models; assessment methods; organization of curriculum content; curriculum management; linkage of undergraduate and postgraduate curricula; and curriculum evaluation. Practical workshops will also be held on topics such as curriculum integration; program evaluation; accreditation in undergraduate medical education; distance learning; and assessment of students in undergraduate medical education.

The organizers of the Congress have invited many international experts to discuss practical issues on medical education in a friendly and open atmosphere, in the hopes of developing collaborative networks aimed at improving the quality of medical education throughout the world. The deadline for abstract submission is September 30, 2008. For more information, visit the conference website.

6th Biennial Conference of the Asia-Pacific Association on Problem-Based Learning in Health Sciences: October 15-16, 2008

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The 6th Biennial Conference of the Asia-Pacific Association on Problem-Based Learning in Health Sciences (APA-PHS) will take place October 15-16, 2008 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The theme of the conference, organized in conjunction with the University of Malaya, is “PBL: Challenges and Opportunities.” A pre-conference workshop will be held October 13-14, focused on PBL case design, student assessment methods, and the use of portfolios as learning and assessment tools.

2001 FAIMER Institute Fellow Vanessa Burch, M.B.Ch.B., M.Med., Ph.D., will present a plenary session titled “Assessment – An Education Tool” on October 15. Dr. Burch is a FAIMER Institute faculty member and Co-Director of the Southern Africa-FAIMER Regional Institute. 2005 FAIMER Institute Fellow Christina Tan, M.B.B.S., will lead a symposium titled “Innovation in Early Clinical Exposure” on October 16. Dr. Tan is a Global Faculty Advisor for the FAIMER Institute. Drs. Burch and Tan, along with 2007 FAIMER Institute Fellow Si Mui (Debra) Sim, Ph.D., will also be facilitating pre-conference workshops on October 13-14.

Dr. Sim and Dr. Tan are Co-Chairperson and Secretary, respectively, of the conference’s Organising Committee and, along with 2002 FAIMER Institute Fellow Nor Azila Mohd Adnan, Ph.D., currently serve on the APA-PHS Executive Committee. For more information on the conference, visit the APA-PHS website.

13th Ottawa International Conference on Clinical Competence

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The 13th Ottawa International Conference on Clinical Competence was held March 5-8, 2008 in Melbourne, Australia. Australians, famous for their ubiquitous slang, call their country “Oz,” and therefore this conference has from the initial planning stages affectionately been referred to as “Ozzawa.” Melbourne, pronounced “Mel-bin” by the locals, is the capital of the state of Victoria and is situated on the picturesque tree-lined banks of the Yarra River. Melbourne is a cosmopolitan city with a unique balance of graceful old and new architecture surrounded by parks and gardens.

The conference was organized by three overarching and interacting themes: The Life of the Patient, The Life of the Professional, and The Life of the Program. The scientific program was large and varied, and included six renowned invited speakers, 17 pre-conference workshops, more than 450 oral presentations, 26 symposia, 29 workshops, and 300 posters.

FAIMER was well represented at the conference. Dr. John Norcini presented a short communication overview of an assessment of FAIMER education programs entitled Evaluation of an International Education Leadership Fellowship Program and participated as a speaker in two symposia: Reporting the UK Foundation Assessment Programme and Novel Assessments and Services for Medical Schools, Students and Professionals: A Perspective from Several Organizations. Dr. Norcini also co-conducted two workshops: Mini-CEX – How it Works in Surgery? Is it a General Method for Work Based Assessment? and Medical Education Databases. Dr. John Boulet presented a full-length paper entitled Setting Performance Standards for Mannequin-Based Acute-Care Scenarios: An Examinee Centered Approach. FAIMER and the World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) organized a symposium entitled International Recognition and Accreditation of Medical Schools’ Programmes. As part of this symposium, Marta van Zanten presented on Gathering Accreditation Data: The FAIMER Directory of Organizations that Recognize / Accredit Medical Schools. Dr. Norcini moderated this symposium, which also contained presentations by WFME, the Australian Medical Council, and Harbin Medical University in China.

In addition to these presentations by FAIMER staff, Mobeen Iqbal, FAIMER Institute class of 2007, of Shifa College of Medicine in Pakistan, gave two presentations, Medical Students’ Perceptions of Teaching Evaluationsand Health Related Quality of Life in a Pakistan Medical School; and Enoch Kwizera, FAIMER Institute class of 2007, of Walter Sisulu University in South Africa, co-authored the poster Evaluating Students’ Generic Learning Skills Early in their Undergraduate Careers – Valuable for Course Organisers?.

The “Ozzawa” conference, the first Ottawa conference to be hosted in Australia, was an excellent opportunity for FAIMER to present its work to an international audience. Additional information can be found on the conference website.

(posted April 10, 2008; updated May 6, 2008)

The Network: Towards Unity for Health to Hold International Conference in Chia-Bogotá, Colombia, September 27 – October 2, 2008

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The 2008 conference of The Network: Towards Unity for Health will be held in Chia-Bogotá, Colombia, from September 27 to October 2, 2008, in cooperation with the Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de La Sabana, Colombia. The theme of the conference is “Adapting Health Services and Health Professions Education to Local Needs: Partnerships, Priorities and Passions.” The Network states that the primary goal of the conference is to analyze and discuss how health systems, services, and health professions education adapt and readapt to the local needs of populations according to the historical, political, and cultural influences they receive over time.

The Network invites abstracts containing empirical, theoretical, or descriptive studies relevant to the field, as well as proposals for mini-workshops and/or didactic sessions. The deadline for abstracts and proposals is June 1, 2008. For detailed information on the 2008 conference, visit www.the-networktufh.org/conference/.

(posted February 22, 2008; updated April 30, 2008)

FAIMER Collaborates with All-India Institute of Medical Sciences, Others for National Conference on Medical Education

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The following is an Executive Summary of the National Conference on Medical Education authored by the conference’s organizing chairperson and 2005 FAIMER Institute Fellow Rita Sood, M.B.B.S., M.D.

NCME 2007 distance learning faculty members Tejinder Singh, Medha Joshi, and Janet Grant, pictured with meeting planners Bill Burdick and Rita Sood
(left to right) NCME 2007 distance learning faculty members Tejinder Singh, Medha Joshi, and Janet Grant, pictured with meeting planners Bill Burdick and Rita Sood

The National Conference on Medical Education (NCME 2007) was held November 15-17, 2007 in New Delhi, India. Centered on the theme, “Building Capacity in Medical Education – A National Perspective,” NCME 2007 was organized by the KL Wig Centre for Medical Education and Technology (CMET) at the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) in collaboration with FAIMER. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, WHO India, Indian Council of Medical Research, Department of Science and Technology, and the Medical Council of India also supported this event.

Rita Sood, M.B.B.S., M.D., a 2005 FAIMER Institute Fellow from New Delhi, India was the organizing chairperson for the conference. Dr. Sood is a faculty member for all three FAIMER Regional Institutes in India. She is a Professor of Medicine and Professor In-charge of CMET at AIIMS.

Meeting participants Payal Bansal, Rita Sood, Zubair Amin, John Norcini, and Usha Nayar
(left to right) Meeting participants Payal Bansal, Rita Sood, Zubair Amin, John Norcini, and Usha Nayar

The purpose of NCME 2007 was to bring together key stakeholders in medical education in India to deliberate on the issue of faculty development and to chart a road map for the future. The conference was attended by about 130 medical educators from across India, including faculty members, Deans and Principals from various medical colleges in the country; Vice-chancellors of health sciences universities; representatives from the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and the Medical Council of India; and international delegates from South Africa, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, and Malaysia. Conference faculty included FAIMER Institute and FAIMER Regional Institute faculty members as well as other eminent national and international experts in medical education.

The conference was directed to highlight the emerging content areas and global trends in faculty development in medical education; bring out the strengths of faculty development in India; initiate the formation of a national network of medical educators to facilitate sharing of innovations in medical education; and plan the mechanics of faculty development in medical education in India.

Prior to the start of the conference, FAIMER faculty also convened four pre-conference workshops focused on: educational research and scholarship development; use of distance learning in faculty development; faculty development in performance-based assessment; and educational leadership in change management.

Deliberations of the conference consisted of panel discussions, interactive poster sessions, and small group interactive sessions on appreciative inquiry, brainstorming, affinity mapping, and multi-voting.

Throughout the conference, delegates showed very active and enthusiastic participation and sustained interest. The deliberations brought out the need to strengthen faculty development as a vehicle for promoting quality medical education in India. The following is a summary of the themes that emerged:

  • Faculty development programs are essential as instruments of change for medical education and health care.
  • Educational innovations and innovators need to be supported. The momentum that has developed so far needs to be sustained.
  • Financial resources and institutional support are essential for faculty development.
  • There is a need to develop a strategy for mandatory training of entry-level teachers in health professions education in a phased manner.
  • Leadership, change management, educational research, and scholarship development should become part of faculty development programs.
  • Contributions made to faculty development programs and innovation in medical education need to be recognized and rewarded.
  • Aim for quality assurance and enhancement in faculty development program.
  • Formation of a network of health professions educators and special interest groups who could meet on a regular basis and share innovative ideas.

The highlight of the conference was the formation of five special interest groups to take forward the ideas that emerged during the conference. As a road map for future action, the participants identified several interventions out of which the top five were prioritized. These were:

  1. Networking through a website
  2. Development of standards for medical education units
  3. Construction of national faculty development programs in education
  4. Formation of a national organization for medical educators
  5. Development of a national body for the accreditation of medical educators

Conference participants divided themselves into one of these five special interest groups. These groups then worked together, selected a coordinator, and developed short- and long-term plans that included objectives, activities, timelines, challenges, and opportunities. The groups continue to work together on-line and are in the process of refining their plans. To follow the progress of the working groups, visit the Google Group on Medical Education Units in India formed by meeting participants at http://groups.google.com/group/meu_india?hl=en.

Conference participants gave tremendous positive feedback and reported that they found the workshops and the format of the conference very engaging and conducive to the sharing of ideas. They appreciated the initiative of the Centre for Medical Education & Technology at AIIMS in organizing this conference and expressed the need to have such national meetings on a regular basis for meaningful interactions, sharing ideas in medical education, and updating their knowledge about developments in the field of medical education.

Dr. Sood and her team at AIIMS express their sincere thanks to FAIMER for its wholehearted support and encouragement of this National Conference on Building Capacity in Medical Education. They look forward to continued support and encouragement from FAIMER in taking forward the cause of medical education in India.

(posted January 11, 2008; updated February 22, 2008)

The Network: TUFH Annual Meeting

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The Network: Towards Unity for Health Annual Meeting took place in Kampala, Uganda in September. FAIMER leaders were among those in attendance. John Norcini, FAIMER President; John Boulet, Associate Vice President for Research; and William Burdick, Associate Vice President for Education and Co-Director of the FAIMER Institute, presented a full-day workshop on changing student assessment. Sixteen participants from sub-Saharan Africa spent the day learning about validity, reliability, standard setting, and new methods of assessment as they considered the best ways to introduce change in their institutions. Sarah Kiguli, a 2004 FAIMER Institute Fellow and chair of the local meeting organizing committee, was elected to The Network’s Executive Council.

For more information on the conference, visit The Network: Towards Unity for Health website.

AMEE 2007

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FAIMER President John Norcini and FAIMER Fellows Christina Tan, Juanita Bezuidenhout, David Cameron, and Eliana Amaral at the 2007 AMEE meeting
FAIMER President John Norcini provides reflections on the 2007 AMEE meeting with the help of four FAIMER Fellows (left to right): Christina Tan, Juanita Bezuidenhout, David Cameron, and Eliana Amaral.

The Association for Medical Education in Europe (AMEE) annual meeting is recognized as the largest annual international event focusing entirely on medical and health care professions education.

The 2007 conference, held August 25-29 in Trondheim, Norway, focused on teaching and learning in medicine, medical education, and health care needs and assessment. FAIMER staff (whose names appear in bold) and Fellows (whose names appear in blue) participated in the following course, workshops, symposia, short communications, and posters:

Course

FAME (Fundamentals of Assessment in Medical Education)
Tony LaDuca, Jack Boulet, Dale Dauphinee, Helena Davies, Ann King, Marina Mrouga, Dave Swanson, Carol Morrison, John Norcini

Workshops

International medical education opportunities: cross-cultural exchanges
John Norcini, M. Brownell Anderson

Assessing the written communication skills of physicians
Thomas Rebbecchi, Jack Boulet, Gerald Whelan

Short Communications

FAIMER Education Programs: five year impact
William Burdick, Page Morahan, Summers Kalishman, Stewart Mennin, MaryAnn Eklund, Debby Diserens*, John Norcini

Postgraduate Medical Education (PMED) Project – a comprehensive web-based international directory
Frank A Simon*, Gerald P Whelan, Danette McKinley, John Norcini

Accreditation processes throughout the world: The FAIMER directory of organizations that recognize/accredit medical schools
Marta van Zanten*, John Norcini, Frank Simon

Peer teaching in Family Medicine – experience of facilitators
Marietjie van Rooyen*, David Cameron, Julia Blitz, Glynis Pickworth

CanMEDS for South African pathology training
Juanita Bezuidenhout*, Vanessa Burch, S Nayler W Grayson, E Wasserman, R Erasmus, E van Rensburg, J Mahlangu, J Vellema, M Altini, Meyer, Moodly, M Senekal, I Loftus

Students’ clinical performance on technical and humanistic skills: comparison between faculty and self assessment
RCL Domingues, AMB Zeferino, SS Morais, E Amaral

Written assessment
David Cameron, chair

Posters

Peer group teaching: from boring lectures to buzzing peer groups
Julia Blitz, David Cameron, Marietjie van Rooyen, Glynis Pickworth

Patient perception about aspects to define a graduate alumni as a good doctor
Mary Bermudez*, Ivan Solarte

Undergraduate medical students’ clinical competence through the eyes of faculty from different specialties
Eliana Amaral*, AMB Zeferino, SS Morais, RCL Domingues

Progress test: is it a predictor of students’ academic performance?
S Monte-Alegre, E Amaral, SMRR Passeri, Rcurvo-Leite, AMB Zeferino

New Interdisciplinary Foundation Phase for Health Sciences at Stellenbosch University
AJN Louw*, MM Bester, FJ Cilliers, MF Gerber, CJ Meyer, PS Steyn, JG Strijdom, PL van der Merwe, BB van Heerden

* Presenter

(posted September 20, 2007, updated September 28, 2007, October 17, 2007)

AAMC 2007 Annual Meeting – November 4-7, 2007

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The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) 2007 Annual Meeting will take place November 4-7, 2007, in Washington, D.C.

FAIMER staff presentations (with FAIMER staff in bold) will include:

Sunday, November 4, 2007

8:30 am – 10:00 am
RIME Symposium Presentations:
The Educational Realities of Increasing Class Size
John Norcini, Ph.D.

9:00 am – 1:00 pm
3:30 pm – 6:30 pm
Innovations in Medical Education and Commercial Exhibits (Booth #1602)

Monday, November 5, 2007

9:00 am – 1:30 pm
Innovations in Medical Education and Commercial Exhibits (Booth #1602)

2:00 pm – 3:30 pm
Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG) and Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research (FAIMER) Update
James A. Hallock, M.D., John Norcini, Ph.D., Stephen S. Seeling, J.D., John R. Boulet, Ph.D., William P. Burdick, M.D.

2:45 pm – 4:15 pmResearch Paper Presentations: Assessing Clinical Skills
Assessing the Communication and Interpersonal Skills of Graduates of International Medical Schools as Part of the USMLE Step 2 Clinical Skills (CS) Exam
Marta van Zanten, M.Ed., John R. Boulet, Ph.D., Danette W. McKinley, Ph.D., Andre De Champlain, Ph.D., Ann C. Jobe, M.D., M.S.N.

Wednesday, November 7, 2007

8:00 am – 9:30 am Abstract Presentations: Prediction
International Medical Graduates & Step 2 CS Outcome
Danette McKinley, Ph.D., John R. Boulet, Ph.D., David B. Swanson, Ph.D., Kimberly Swygert, Ph.D.

9:45 am – 11:15 amAbstract Presentations: Graduate Medical Education
The Certification of International Medical Graduates
John R. Boulet, Ph.D., Stephen S. Seeling, J.D., Danette W. McKinley, Ph.D.