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Publications by FAIMER Staff

Listed below are books, book chapters, reports, and journal articles authored by FAIMER staff since 2003 (staff names shown in bold). FAIMER is pleased to provide links to the abstracts of those publications that have been indexed in the PubMed database. Click on the title of an article to view its PubMed listing. If you encounter a link that does not work, please click here to let us know.

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Blum RH, Muret-Wagstaff SL, Boulet JR, Cooper JB, Petrusa E. Simulation-based assessment to reliably identify key resident performance attributes. Anesthesiology. 2018;128(4):821-831.

Boyle W, Murray D, Beyatte MB, Knittel J, Kerby P, Woodhouse J, Boulet J. Simulation-based assessment of critical care ‘front-line’ providers. Critical Care Medicine. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Cervero R, Torre D, Durning S, Schreiber-Gregory D, Reamy B, Pangaro L, Boulet J. Staying power: does the Uniformed Services University continue to meet its obligation to the nation’s health care needs? Military Medicine. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

Dauphinee WD, Boulet JR, Norcini JJ. Considerations that will determine if competency-based assessment is a sustainable innovation. Advances in Health Sciences Education. Epub 2018 May 18.

Lorwald AC, Lahner FM, Greif R, Berendonk C, Norcini J, Huwendiek S. Factors influencing the educational impact of Mini-CEX and DOPS: a qualitative synthesis. Medical Teacher. 2018;40(4):414-420.

Lorwald AC, Lahner FM, Nouns ZM, Greif R, Berendonk C, Norcini J, Huwendiek S. The educational impact of mini-clinical evaluation exercise (Mini-CEX) and direct observation of performance (DOPS) and its association with implementation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS One [Internet]. 2018 Jun 4;13(6).

Murray D, Boulet J. Anesthesiology board certification changes: A real example of “assessment drives learning.” Anesthesiology. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Opalek A, Gordon D. A data model for medical schools and their programs: structuring data to inform medical regulation worldwide. Journal of Medical Regulation. 2018;104(1):5-12.

Setubal M, Antonio M, Amaral E, Boulet J. Improving perinatology residents’ skills in breaking bad news: a randomized intervention strategy. Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetricia. Epub 2018 Jan 17.


Baker AJ, Raymond MR, Haist SA, Boulet JR. Using national health care databases to inform curriculum development. Academic Medicine. 2017;92(4):448-454.

Boulet J, Natt N, Hawkins R. Direct observation: Standardized patients. In: Holmboe ES, Hawkins RE, Durning S, editors. Practical guide to the evaluation of clinical competence. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2017. p. 91-112.

Burdick W, Boulet J, LeBlanc K. Can we increase the value and decrease the cost of clinical skills assessment? Academic Medicine. Epub 2017 Aug 22.

Dewan M, Norcini J. A purpose-driven fourth year of medical school. Academic Medicine. Epub 2017 Oct 3.

Duvivier R, Burch V, Boulet J. A comparison of physician emigration from Africa to the United States of America between 2005 and 2015. Human Resources for Health. 2017;15(41):1-12.

Fehr JJ, McBride M, Boulet J, Murray DJ. The simulation-based assessment of pediatric rapid response teams. Journal of Pediatrics. 2017;188:258-262.e1.

Griswold S, Fralliccardi A, Boulet J, Moadel T, Franzen D, Auerbach M, Hart D, Goswami V, Hui J, Gordon J. Simulation-based education to ensure provider competency within the healthcare system. Academic Emergency Medicine. Epub 2017 Sep 30.

Juriga L, Murray D, Boulet J, Fehr J. Simulation and the diagnostic process: A pilot study of trauma and rapid response teams. Diagnosis. 2017;4(4):241-249.

Karam VY, Barakat H, Aouad M, Harris I, Park YS, Youssef N, Boulet JJ, Tekian A. Effect of a simulation-based workshop on breaking bad news for anesthesiology residents: an intervention study. BMC Anesthesiology. 2017;17(1):77.

Laufer S, D’Angelo AD, Kwan C, Ray RD, Yudkowsky R, Boulet JR, McGaghie WC, Pugh CM. Rescuing the clinical breast examination: Advances in classifying technique and assessing physician competency. Annals of Surgery. 2017;266(6):1069-1074.

Leng SW, Opalek A. International Medical Graduates’ Contributions to the United States Health Workforce. Philadelphia: Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research; 2017 Jul. Report No.: 3.

Manring J, Norcini J, Dewan M. Evaluating competence in brief psychotherapy. In: Dewan MJ, Steenbarger BN, Greenberg RP, editors. The art and science of brief psychotherapies: A practitioner’s guide. Arlington: American Psychiatric Association Publishing; 2017.

McIvor WR, Banerjee A, Boulet JR, Bekhuis T, Tseytlin E, Torsher L, DeMaria S, Rask JP, Shotwell MS, Burden A, Cooper JB, Gaba DM, Levine A, Park C, Sinz E, Steadman RH, Weinger MB. A taxonomy of delivery and documentation deviations during delivery of high-fidelity simulations. Simulation in Healthcare. 2017;12(1):1-8.

Norcini JJ, Boulet JR, Opalek A, Dauphinee WD. Patients of doctors further from medical school graduation have poorer outcomes. Medical Education. 2017;51(5):480-489.

Norcini JJ, McKinley DW. Concepts in assessment including standard setting. In: Dent JA, Harden RM, editors. A practical guide for medical teachers. 5th ed. London: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2017. p. 252-259.

Opalek A, Greenberg J. The representation of agents as resources for the purpose of professional regulation and global health workforce planning. In: Garoufallou E, Virkus S, Siatri R, Koutsomiha D, editors. Metadata and Semantic Research. MTSR 2017. Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol 755. Springer, Cham; 2017. p. 103-111.

Roberts WL, Boulet JR, Sandella J. Comparison study of judged clinical skills competence from standard setting ratings generated under different administration conditions. Advances in Health Sciences Education Theory and Practice. 2017;22(5):1279-1292.

Shea JA, Norcini JJ. All the [training] world’s a stage… . Medical Education. 2017;51(5):458-460.

Tekian A, Watling CJ, Roberts TE, Steinert Y, Norcini J. Qualitative and quantitative feedback in the context of competency-based education. Medical Teacher. Epub 2017 Sep 19.

van Zanten M. Recognition organizations that evaluate agencies accrediting medical education programs: Quis custodiet ipsos custodes? Quality in Higher Education. 2017;23(2):100-119.

Watkins SC, Roberts DA, Boulet JR, McEvoy MD, Weinger M. Evaluation of a simpler tool to assess nontechnical skills during simulated critical events. Simulation in Healthcare. 2017;12(2):69-75.

Weinger M, Banerjee A, Burden A, McIvor W, Boulet J, Cooper J, Steadman R, Shotwell M, Slagle J, DeMaria S, Torsher L, Sinz E, Levine A, Rask J, Davis F, Park C, Gaba D. Simulation-based assessment of the management of critical events by board-certified anesthesiologists. Anesthesiology. 2017;127(3): 475-489.


Burdick WB, Boulet JR, van Zanten M. The shortage of clinical training sites in an era of global collaboration. Academic Medicine. 2016;91(5):615-617.

Durning SJ, Dong T, Ratcliffe T, Schuwirth L, Artino AR Jr, Boulet JR, Eva K. Comparing open-book and closed-book examination: a systematic review. Academic Medicine. 2016;91(4):583-599.

Fehr JJ, Shepard M, McBride ME, Mehegan M, Reddy K, Murray DJ, Boulet JR. Simulation-based assessment of ECMO clinical specialists. Simulation in Healthcare. Epub 2016 Apr 18.

Gabriel KM, Holthaus RM, Boulet JR. Usefulness of video-assisted peer mentor feedback in undergraduate nursing education. Clinical Simulation in Nursing. 2016;12:337-345.

Hawkins RE, Irons MB, Welcher CM, Pouwels MV, Holmboe ES, Reisdorff EJ, Cohen JM, Dentzer S, Nichols DG, Lien CA, Horn TD, Noone RB, Lipner RS, Eva KW, Norcini JJ, Nora LM, Gold JP. The ABMS MOC Part III examination: Value, concerns, and alternative formats. Academic Medicine. 2016;91(11):1509-1515.

Hrabalová B, Leng SW. World Directory of Medical Schools. European Consortium for Accreditation QAzette [Internet]. 2016 Dec 27.

Knobel R, Takemoto ML, Andreucci CB, Docusse P, McKinley DW, Amaral E. Factors associated with preference for vaginal birth among undergraduate students from southern Brazil. Birth. Epub 2016 May 9.

Konopasek L, Norcini J, Krupat E. Focusing on the formative: building an assessment system aimed at student growth and development. Academic Medicine. Epub 2016 Mar 29.

LaRochelle J, Durning SJ, Boulet JR, van der Vleuten C, van Merrienboer J, Donkers J. Beyond standard checklist assessment: Question sequence may impact student performance. Perspectives in Medical Education. 2016;5(2):95-102.

McKinley DW. Evaluating team performance: A systematic review. In: Wimmers PF, Mentkowski M, editors. Assessing competence in professional performance across disciplines and professions. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 285–329.

Mortaz Hejri S, Yazdani K, Labaf A, Norcini JJ, Jalili M. Introducing a model for optimal design of sequential objective structured clinical examinations. Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice. Epub 2016 Mar 7.

Norcini JJ. Understanding learning in the workplace for those who practise: we can’t wait another 50 years. Medical Education. 2016;50(1):18-20.

Park YS, Zar FA, Norcini JJ, Tekian A. Competency evaluations in the next accreditation system: contributing to guidelines and implications. Teaching and Learning in Medicine. 2016;28(2):135-145.

Sandella J, Gimpel J, Smith L, Boulet J. The use of COMLEX-USA and USMLE for residency applicant selection. Journal of Graduate Medical Education. 2016;8(3):358-63.

Tekian A, Norcini JJ. Faculty development in assessment: What the faculty need to know and do. In: Wimmers PF, Mentkowski M, editors. Assessing competence in professional performance across disciplines and professions. Basel: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 355-374.

Vyas R, Faith M, Selvakumar D, Pulimood A, Lee M. Project-based faculty development for e-learning. The Clinical Teacher. 2016;13:1-6.


Bansal P, Vyas R, Menon P, Patrikar S, Jamkar A. Shaping interprofessional education- educators in action. In: Forman D, Jones M, Thistlethwaite J, editors. Leadership and collaboration: further development for interprofessional education. United Kingdom: Palgrave MacMillan; 2015. p. 213-28.

Bhagat A, Vyas R, Singh T. Student awareness of learning styles and their perceptions to a mixed method approach for learning. International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research. 2015;5(1):S58-65.

Dow A, Reising D, Peyre S, Zomorodi M, Hanyok L, van Schaik S, Karpa K, Colson E, Hasnain M, et al. Is it time for an interprofessional society? Journal of Interprofessional Education and Practice; Epub 2015 Sept 25.

Drendall J. Formal education in accreditation and assessment for the health professions. The Bulletin of the Royal College of Pathologists. 2015;169:53-54.

Durning SJ, Dong T, Hemmer PA, Gilliland WR, Cruess DF, Boulet JR, Pangaro LN. Are commonly used premedical school or medical school measures associated with board certification? Military Medicine. 2015;180(4 Suppl):18-23.

Duvivier RJ, van Zanten M. Medical education in the former Netherlands Antilles countries Bonaire, St Eustatius and Saba. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde. 2015;159(0):A8661.

Eckhert NL, van Zanten M. U.S.-citizen international medical graduates--a boon for the workforce? New England Journal of Medicine. 2015;372(18):1686-1687.

Grossman E, Grosseman S, Azevedo GD, Figueiró-Filho EA, McKinley D. Flipped classroom on humanities: medicine, narrative and art [abstract]. Medical Education. 2015;49(11):1142.

Hawkins RE, Welcher CM, Holmboe ES, Kirk LM, Norcini JJ, Simons KB, Skochelak SE. Implementation of competency-based medical education: are we addressing the concerns and challenges? Medical Education. 2015;49(11):1086-1102.

Jünger J, Tekian A, Norcini JJ. On the journey to competency-based assessment for safe patient care. GMS Zeitschrift für Medizinische Ausbildung. 2015;32(4):Doc47.

Kalra R, Modi JN, Vyas R. Involving post graduate students in undergraduate small group teaching promotes active learning in both. International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research. 2015;5(1):S14-S17.

Ladhani Z, Shah H, Wells R, Friedman S, Bezuidenhout J, van Heerden B, Campos H, Morahan P. Global leadership model for health professions education—a case study of the FAIMER program. Journal of Leadership Education. 2015;14(4):67-91.

Laufer S, Cohen ER, Kwan C, D’Angelo AL, Pugh CM, Yudkowsky R, Boulet JR, McGaghie WC. Sensor technology in assessments of clinical skill. New England Journal of Medicine. 2015;372(8):784-786.

Murray DJ, Freeman BD, Boulet JR, Woodhouse J, Fehr JJ, Klingensmith ME. Decision making in trauma settings: simulation to improve diagnostic skills. Simulation in Healthcare 2015;10(3):139-145.

Pugh DM, Wood TJ, Boulet JR. Assessing procedural competence: validity considerations. Simulation in Healthcare. 2015;10(5):288-294.

Raja S, Hasnain M, Hoersch M, Gove-Yin S, Rajagopan C. Trauma informed care in medicine: current knowledge and future directions. Journal of Family and Community Health. 2015;38(3):216-26.

Tekian A, Boulet J. A longitudinal study of the characteristics and performances of medical students and graduates from the Arab countries. BMC Medical Education. 2015;15(200):1-8.

Tekian A, Hodges BD, Roberts TE, Schuwirth L, and Norcini J. Assessing competencies using milestones along the way. Medical Teacher. 2015;37(4):399-402.

Tekian A, Norcini J. Overcome the 60% passing score and improve the quality of assessment. GMS Zeitschrift für Medizinische Ausbildung. 2015;32(4):Doc43.

van Zanten M. Accreditation and recognition of medical schools. European Consortium for Accreditation QAzette. Epub 2015 Apr 28.

van Zanten M. The association between medical education accreditation and examination performance of internationally educated physicians seeking certification in the United States. Perspectives in Medical Education. 2015;4(3):142-145.

Velavan J, Anbarasi S, Bhandary S, Vyas R. Demographic profiling: advocacy tool for family medicine in India [abstract]. Medical Education. 2015;49(5):539-540.

Vyas R. Early clinical exposure. In: Bhuiyan PS, Rege NN, Supe A, editors. The art of teaching medical students. 3rd ed. India: Elsevier; 2015. p. 124-34.

Vyas R, Zachariah A, Swamidasan I, Doris P, Harris I. An academic support program for rural practitioners in India [abstract]. Medical Education. 2015;49(5):513-513.

Zehra T, Tariq M, Ali SK, Motiwala A, Boulet J. Challenges of providing timely feedback to residents: faculty perspectives. Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association. 2015;65(10):1069-1074.

Zhao L, Sun T, Sun BZ, Zhao YH, Norcini J, Chen L. Identifying the competencies of doctors in China. BMC Medical Education. 2015;15(1):207.


Blum RH, Boulet JR, Cooper JB, Muret-Wagstaff SL. Simulation-based assessment to identify critical gaps in safe anesthesia resident performance. Anesthesiology. 2014;120(1):129-141.

Boulet J, van Zanten M. Ensuring high-quality patient care: the role of accreditation, licensure, specialty certification and revalidation in medicine. Medical Education. 2014;48(1):75–86.

Burdick WP. Global faculty development: Lessons learned from the Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research (FAIMER) initiatives. Academic Medicine. 2014;89(8):1097-1099.

Duvivier RJ, Boulet JR, Opalek A, van Zanten M, Norcini J. Overview of the world’s medical schools: an update. Medical Education. 2014;48(9):860-869.

Figueiró-Filho EA, Amaral E, McKinley D, Bezuidenhout J, Tekian A. Clinical teaching with minimal and indirect supervision [abstract]. Medical Education. 2014;48(5):530.

Figueiró-Filho EA, Amaral E, McKinley D, Bezuidenhout J, Tekian A. Minimal supervision out-patient clinical teaching. Clinical Teacher. 2014;11(5):365-369.

Gotardelo D, Bollela V, Boulet J, Ballester D. Role-play preceded by fieldwork in pharmacology teaching [abstract]. Medical Education. 2014;48(11):1111.

Holtzman KZ, Swanson DB, Ouyang W, Dillon GF, Boulet JR. International variation in performance by clinical discipline and task on the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Knowledge component. Academic Medicine. 2014;89(11):1558-1562.

Krautter M, Koehl-Hackert N, Nagelmann L, Jünger J, Norcini J, Tekian A, Nikendei C. Improving ward round skills. Medical Teacher. 2014;36(9):783-788.

Maia TD, Amaral E, Boulet J. The objective structured clinical examination in dietician education [abstract]. Medical Education. 2014;48(11):1130-1131.

McKinley DW. Capsule commentary on Gallagher et al., Internists’ attitudes about assessing and maintaining clinical competence [commentary]. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2014;29(4):649.

McKinley DW, Hess BJ, Boulet JR, Lipner RS. Examining changes in certification/licensure requirements and the international medical graduate examinee pool. Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice. 2014;19(1):19-28.

McKinley DW, Norcini JJ. How to set standards on performance-based examinations: AMEE Guide No. 85. Medical Teacher. 2014;36(2):97-110.

Norcini JJ, Boulet JR, Opalek A, Dauphinee WD. The Relationship Between Licensing Examination Performance and the Outcomes of Care by International Medical School Graduates. Academic Medicine. 2014;89(8):1157-1162.

Norman G, Norcini J, Bordage G. Competency-based education: milestones or millstones? Journal of Graduate Medical Education. 2014;6(1):1-6.

Tariq M, Boulet J, Motiwala A, Sajjad N, Ali SK. A 360-degree evaluation of the communication and interpersonal skills of medicine resident physicians in Pakistan. Education for Health. 2014;27(3):269-276.

Tekian A, Boker AM, Norcini J. What does it take to become an effective medical educator? Medical Teacher. 2014;36 Suppl 1:S1-S2.

Tekian A, Hodges BD, Roberts TE, Schuwirth L, Norcini J. Assessing competencies using milestones along the way. Medical Teacher. 2014;37(4):399-402.

Tekian A, Roberts T, Batty HP, Cook DA, Norcini J. Preparing leaders in health professions education. Medical Teacher. 2014;36(3):269-271.


Amin Z, Boulet JR, Cook DA, Ellaway R, Fahal A, Kneebone R, Maley M, Østergard D, Ponnamperuma G, Wearn A, Ziv A. Technology-enabled assessment of health professions education. In: McGaghie WC, editor. International Best Practices for Evaluation in the Health Professions. London: Radcliffe Publishing; 2013. p. 45-57.

Boulet JR, McKinley DW. Criteria for good assessment. In: McGaghie WC, editor. International Best Practices for Evaluation in the Health Professions. London: Radcliffe Publishing; 2013. p. 19-44.

Burns TL, Debaun MR, Boulet JR, Murray GM, Murray DJ, Fehr JJ. Acute care of pediatric patients with Sickle Cell Disease: a simulation performance assessment. Pediatric Blood & Cancer. 2013;60(9):1492-1498.

Campos HH, Friedman S, Morahan PS, Campos FE, Haddad AE. Evaluation of health professions leadership and management and programs that teach these competencies. In: McGaghie WC (editor). International best practices for evaluation in the health professions. London: Radcliffe Publishing Ltd.; 2013. p. 311-327.

FAIMER Research and Data Resources. Nigerian Medical School Graduates and the U.S. Physician Workforce. Philadelphia, PA, USA: Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research; 2013 Oct. Report No.: 1.

Friedman SR, Loh LC, Burdick WP. Educator perceptions of the relationship between education innovations and improved health. Medical Teacher. 2013;35(4):e1060-1067.

Loh LC, Friedman SR, Burdick WP. Factors promoting sustainability of education innovations: a comparison of faculty perceptions and existing frameworks. Education for Health. 2013;26(1):32-38.

Mammen M, Longo-Mbenza B, van Zanten M. Impact of medical students’ attitude on referral intention to traditional healers and traditional medicine: A case study. Studies on Ethno-Medicine. 2013;7(1):1-5.

McKinley DW. Doctor-patient relationships in a post-racial era. Medical Education. 2013;47(9):860-862.

McKinley DW, Norcini JJ. Setting standards. In: Walsh K (editor). Oxford Textbook of Medical Education. [S.l.]: Oxford University Press; 2013. p. 421-431.

Mehmood SI, Norcini JJ, Borleffs JC. Newly qualified doctors’ views on the significance and accessibility of career advice during medical training in Saudi Arabia. Medical Teacher. 2013;35(Suppl 1):S20-S24.

Mennin S, Kalishman S, Eklund MA, Friedman S, Morahan PS, Burdick W. Project-based faculty development by international health professions educators: Practical strategies. Medical Teacher. 2013;35(2):e971–e977.

Norcini JJ, Boulet JR, Opalek A, Dauphinee WD. Outcomes of cardiac surgery: associations with physician characteristics, institutional characteristics, and transfers of care. Medical Care. 2013;51(12):1034-1039.

Norcini JJ, Friedman Ben-David M. Concepts in assessment. In: Dent JA, Harden RM (editors). A practical guide for medical teachers. London: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier; 2013. p. 285-291.

Norcini JJ, Lipner RS, Grosso LJ. Assessment in the context of licensure and certification. Teaching and Learning in Medicine. 2013;25 Suppl 1:S62-S67.

Norcini JJ, McKinley DW. Standard setting. In: Dent JA, Harden RM (editors). A practical guide for medical teachers. London: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier; 2013. p. 292-298.

Park CS, Bauchat JR, Kacmar R, Milicic B, Johnson KB, Littlewood KE, Murray DJ, Boulet JR. Using simulation to study speaking up and team performance. Anesthesia and Analgesia. 2013;116(5):1183-1184.

Singh T, de Grave W, Ganjiwale J, Supe A, Burdick WP, van der Vleuten C. Impact of a fellowship program for faculty development on the self-efficacy beliefs of health professions teachers: a longitudinal study. Medical Teacher. 2013;35(5):359-364.

van Zanten M, Boulet JR. Medical education in the Caribbean: quantifying the contribution of Caribbean-educated physicians to the primary care workforce in the United States. Academic Medicine. 2013;88(2):276-281.

van Zanten M, Boulet JR. The association between medical education accreditation and examination performance of internationally educated physicians seeking certification in the United States. Quality in Higher Education. 2013;19(3):283-299.

Wijnen-Meijer M, Burdick W, Alofs L, Burgers C, ten Cate O. Stages and transitions in medical education around the world: clarifying structures and terminology. Medical Teacher. 2013;35(4):301-307.


Besancon LJR, Rockey P, van Zanten M. Regulation of health professions: disparate worldwide approaches are a challenge to harmonization. World Medical Journal. 2012;58(4):128-136.

Borda Medina RA, Norcini JJ. Virtual patients in the education of health professionals. Revista de Docencia Universitaria. 2012;10(extraordinario):201-209.

Boulet JR. Using SP-based assessments to make valid inferences concerning student abilities: pitfalls and challenges. Medical Teacher. 2012;34(9):681-682.

Boulet JR, Cassimatis EG, Opalek A. The role of international medical graduate psychiatrists in the United States healthcare system. Academic Psychiatry. 2012;36(4):293-299.

Boulet JR, Murray D. Review article: Assessment in anesthesiology education. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia. 2012;59(2):182-192.

Burdick WP, Friedman SR, Diserens D. Faculty development projects for international health professions educators: vehicles for institutional change? Medical Teacher. 2012;34(1):38-44.

Dandekar SP, Maksane SM, McKinley D. A survey validation and analysis of undergraduate medical biochemistry practical curriculum in Maharashtra, India. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry. 2012;27(1):52-60.

DeZee KJ, Durning SJ, Dong T, Artino AR Jr, Gilliland WR, Waechter DM, McManigle JE, Saguil A, Cruess DF, Boulet JR. Where are they now? USU School of Medicine graduates after their military obligation is complete. Military Medicine. 2012;177(9 Suppl):68-71.

Durning SJ, Artino AR, Boulet JR, Dorrance K, van der Vleuten C, Schuwirth L. The impact of selected contextual factors on experts’ clinical reasoning performance (does context impact clinical reasoning performance in experts?). Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice. 2012;17(1):65-79.

Durning SJ, Artino A, Boulet J, La Rochelle J, van der Vleuten C, Arze B, Schuwirth L. The feasibility, reliability, and validity of a post-encounter form for evaluating clinical reasoning. Medical Teacher. 2012;34(1):30-37.

Durning SJ, Larochelle J, Pangaro L, Artino AR Jr, Boulet J, van der Vleuten C, Hemmer P, Denton D, Schuwirth L. Does the authenticity of preclinical teaching format affect subsequent clinical clerkship outcomes? A prospective randomized crossover trial. Teaching and Learning in Medicine. 2012;24(2):177-182.

Hochlehnert A, Brass K, Möltner A, Schultz JH, Norcini J, Tekian A, Jünger J. Good exams made easy: the item management system for multiple examination formats. BMC Medical Education. 2012;12:63.

Langenau EE, Zhang X, Roberts WL, DeChamplain AF, Boulet JR. Clinical skills assessment of procedural and advanced communication skills: performance expectations of residency program directors. Medical Education Online. 2012;17.

Maxted M, Grant J, Wooding K, Norcini J. Assessing professional competence. In: Singh T and Anshu, editors. Principles of Assessment in Medical Education. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers; 2012. p. 49-69.

Meaney PA, Sutton RM, Tsima B, Steenhoff AP, Shilkofski N, Boulet JR, Davis A, Kestler AM, Church KK, Niles DE, Irving SY, Mazhani L, Nadkarni VM. Training hospital providers in basic CPR skills in Botswana: acquisition, retention and impact of novel training techniques. Resuscitation. 2012;83(12):1484-1490.

Mudumbai SC, Gaba DM, Boulet JR, Howard SK, Davies MF. External validation of simulation-based assessments with other performance measures of third-year anesthesiology residents. Simulation in Healthcare. 2012;7(2):73-80.

Murray DJ, Boulet JR. Simulation-based curriculum: the breadth of applications in graduate medical education. Journal of Graduate Medical Education. 2012;4(4):549-550.

Nishisaki A, Donoghue A, Colborn S, Watson C, Meyer A, Niles D, Bishnoi R, Hales R, Hutchins L, Helfaer MA, Brown C, Walls RM, Nadkarni VM, Boulet JR. Development of an instrument for a primary airway provider’s performance with an ICU multidisciplinary team in pediatric respiratory failure using simulation. Respiratory Care. 2012;57(7):1121-1128.

Roberts WL, Pugliano G, Langenau E, Boulet JR. Modeling relationships between traditional preadmission measures and clinical skills performance on a medical licensure examination. Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice. 2012;17(3):403-417.

Sandella JM, Boulet JR, Langenau EE. An evaluation of cost and appropriateness of care as recommended by candidates on a national clinical skills examination. Teaching and Learning in Medicine. 2012;24(4):303-308.

Singh T, Norcini J. The mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX). In: Singh T and Anshu, editors. Principles of Assessment in Medical Education. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers; 2012. p. 156-165.

Swygert KA, Cuddy MM, van Zanten M, Haist SA, Jobe AC. Gender differences in examinee performance on the Step 2 Clinical Skills(®) data gathering (DG) and patient note (PN) components. Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice. 2012;17(4):557-571.

van Zanten M, Boulet JR, Greaves I. The importance of medical education accreditation standards. Medical Teacher. 2012;34(2):136-145.

van Zanten M, McKinley D, Durante Montiel I, Pijano CV. Medical education accreditation in Mexico and the Philippines: impact on student outcomes. Medical Education. 2012;46(6):586-592.

White FS, McDade S, Yamagata H, Morahan PS. Gender-related differences in the pathway to and characteristics of U.S. medical school deanships. Academic Medicine. 2012;87(8):1015-1023.

Zaidi Z, Jaffery T, Shahid A, Moin S, Gilani A, Burdick W. Change in action: using positive deviance to improve student clinical performance. Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice. 2012;17(1):95-105.


Amin Z, Boulet JR, Cook DA, Ellaway R, Fahal A, Kneebone R, Maley M, Ostergaard D, Ponnamperuma G, Wearn A, Ziv A. Technology-enabled assessment of health professions education: consensus statement and recommendations from the Ottawa 2010 conference. Medical Teacher. 2011;33(5):364-369.

Anshu, Friedman S, McKinley D. Expectations of Indian applicants of an educational fellowship. Medical Education. 2011;45(5):528-529.

Artino AR Jr, Durning SJ, Boulet JR. AM Last Page: Generalizability in medical education research. Academic Medicine. 2011;86(7):917.

Boulet JR, Jeffries PR, Hatala RA, Korndorffer JR Jr, Feinstein DM, Roche JP. Research regarding methods of assessing learning outcomes. Simulation in Healthcare. 2011;6 Suppl:S48-S51.

Burch VC, McKinley D, van Wyk J, Kiguli-Walube S, Cameron D, Cilliers FJ, Longombe AO, Mkony C, Okoromah C, Otieno-Nyunya B, Morahan PS. Career intentions of medical students trained in six sub-Saharan African countries. Education for Health. 2011;24(3):614.

Burdick W, Amaral E, Campos H, Norcini J. A model for linkage between health professions education and health: FAIMER international faculty development initiatives. Medical Teacher. 2011;33(8):632-637.

Donoghue A, Ventre K, Boulet J, Brett-Fleegler M, Nishisaki A, Overly F, Cheng A. Design, implementation, and psychometric analysis of a scoring instrument for simulated pediatric resuscitation: a report from the EXPRESS pediatric investigators. Simulation in Healthcare. 2011;6(2):71-77.

Fehr JJ, Boulet JR, Waldrop WB, Snider R, Brockel M, Murray DJ. Simulation-based assessment of pediatric anesthesia skills. Anesthesiology. 2011;115(6):1308-1315.

Hemmer PA, Busing N, Boulet JR, Burdick WP, McKillop J, Irby D, Farmer EA, Duvivier R. AMEE 2010 symposium: medical student education in the twenty-first century - A new Flexnerian era? Medical Teacher. 2011;33(7):541-546.

Jalili M, Hejri SM, Norcini JJ. Comparison of two methods of standard setting: the performance of the three-level Angoff method. Medical Education. 2011;45(12):1199-1208.

Jolly P, Boulet J, Garrison G, Signer MM. Participation in U.S. graduate medical education by graduates of international medical schools. Academic Medicine. 2011;86(5):559-564.

Ladhani Z, Chhatwal J, Vyas R, Iqbal M, Tan C, Diserens D. Online role-playing for faculty development. The Clinical Teacher. 2011;8(1):31-36.

McBride ME, Waldrop WB, Fehr JJ, Boulet JR, Murray DJ. Simulation in Pediatrics: the reliability and validity of a multiscenario assessment. Pediatrics. 2011;128(2):335-343.

Mudumbai SC, Gaba DM, Boulet J, Howard SK, Davies MF. Feasibility of an internet-based global ranking instrument. Journal of Graduate Medical Education. 2011;3(1):67-74.

Nishisaki A, Nguyen J, Colborn S, Watson C, Niles D, Hales R, Devale S, Bishnoi R, Nadkarni LD, Donoghue AJ, Meyer A, Brown CA, Helfaer MA, Boulet J, Berg RA, Walls RM, Nadkarni VM. Evaluation of multidisciplinary simulation training on clinical performance and team behavior during tracheal intubation procedures in a pediatric intensive care unit. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine. 2011;12(4):406-414.

Norcini J, Anderson B, Bollela V, Burch V, Costa MJ, Duvivier R, Galbraith R, Hays R, Kent A, Perrott V, Roberts T. Criteria for good assessment: consensus statement and recommendations from the Ottawa 2010 Conference. Medical Teacher. 2011;33(3):206-214.

Norcini JJ, Banda SS. Increasing the quality and capacity of education: the challenge for the 21st century. Medical Education. 2011;45(1):81-86.

Van Zanten M. Evaluating the spoken English proficiency of international medical graduates for certification and licensure in the United States. In: Hoekje B and Tipton S, editors. English Language and the Medical Profession: Instructing and Assessing the Communication Skills of International Physicians. Bingley, UK: Emerald Press; 2011. p. 75-90.

van Zanten M, Boulet JR. Medical education in the Caribbean: a longitudinal study of United States Medical Licensing Examination performance, 2000-2009. Academic Medicine. 2011;86(2):231-238.


Amin Z, Burdick WP, Supe A, Singh T. Relevance of the Flexner Report to contemporary medical education in South Asia. Academic Medicine. 2010;85(2):333-339.

Anshu, Sharma M, Burdick WP, Singh T. Group dynamics and social interaction in a South Asian online learning forum for faculty development of medical teachers. Education for Health. 2010;23(1):311.

Boulet J. Improving the flexibility and efficiency of testing. Medical Education. 2010;44(1):18-19.

Boulet JR, Murray DJ. Simulation-based assessment in anesthesiology: requirements for practical implementation. Anesthesiology. 2010;112(4):1041-1052.

Boulet JR, van Zanten M. Health care professions’ education: challenges and opportunities. Medical Education. 2010;44(9):849-850.

Burdick WP, Diserens D, Friedman SR, Morahan PS, Kalishman S, Eklund MA, Mennin S, Norcini JJ. Measuring the effects of an international health professions faculty development fellowship: the FAIMER Institute. Medical Teacher. 2010;32(5):414-421.

Burdick WP, Hauswald M, Iserson KV. International emergency medicine. Academic Emergency Medicine. 2010;17(7):758-761.

Donoghue A, Nishisaki A, Sutton R, Hales R, Boulet J. Reliability and validity of a scoring instrument for clinical performance during Pediatric Advanced Life Support simulation scenarios. Resuscitation 2010;81(3):331-336.

Durning SJ, Artino A, Boulet J, van der Vleuten CP, La Rochelle J, Arze B, Schuwirth L. Making use of contrasting participant views of the same encounter. Medical Education. 2010;44(10):953-961.

Hawkins RE, Margolis MJ, Durning SJ, Norcini JJ. Constructing a validity argument for the Mini-Clinical Evaluation Exercise: a review of the research. Academic Medicine. 2010;85(9):1453-1461.

Manning D, McKinley D, Chipamaunga S. Student learning experiences in a diversified academic environment [Abstract]. Medical Education. 2010;44(5):493-494.

Norcini J. The power of feedback. Medical Education. 2010;44(1):16-17.

Norcini JJ, Boulet JR, Dauphinee WD, Opalek A, Krantz ID, Anderson ST. Evaluating the quality of care provided by graduates of international medical schools. Health Affairs. 2010;29(8):1461-1468.

Norcini JJ, van Zanten M. Overview of accreditation, certification, and licensure processes. In: Peterson P, Baker E, McGaw B, editors. International Encyclopedia of Education. 3rd ed. Vol. 3. Oxford: Elsevier; 2010. p. 1-6.

Roberts WL, McKinley DW, Boulet JR. Effect of first-encounter pretest on pass/fail rates of a clinical skills medical licensure examination. Advances in Health Sciences Education. 2010;15(2):219-227.

van Zanten M, Boulet JR, Simon FA. Flexner’s global influence: medical education accreditation in countries that train physicians who pursue residency in the United States. Academic Medicine. 2010;85(2):324-332.

Weidner AC, Gimpel JR, Boulet JR, Solomon M. Using standardized patients to assess the communication skills of graduating physicians for the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination (COMLEX) Level 2-Performance Evaluation (Level 2-PE). Teaching and Learning in Medicine. 2010;22(1):8-15.


Arbogast KB, Nishisaki A, Balasubramanian S, Nysaether J, Niles D, Sutton RM, Roberts KE, Nadkarni L, Boulet J, Maltese MR, Nadkarni VM. Expert clinical assessment of thorax stiffness of infants and children during chest compressions. Resuscitation. 2009;80(10):1187-1191.

Boulet JR, Cooper RA, Seeling SS, Norcini JJ, McKinley DW. U.S. citizens who obtain their medical degrees abroad: an overview, 1992-2006. Health Affairs. 2009;28(1):226-233.

Boulet JR, Smee SM, Dillon GF, Gimpel JR. The use of standardized patient assessments for certification and licensure decisions. Simulation in Healthcare. 2009;4(1):35-42.

Davies H, Archer J, Southgate L, Norcini J. Initial evaluation of the first year of the Foundation Assessment Programme. Medical Education. 2009;43(1):74-81.

Gursel Y, Musal B, Boulet J. Computer-based performance assessment in an undergraduate clinical clerkship [Abstract]. Medical Education. 2009;43(5):483-484.

Henrichs BM, Avidan MS, Murray DJ, Boulet JR, Kras J, Krause B, Snider R, Evers AS. Performance of Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists and Anesthesiologists in a simulation-based skills assessment. Anesthesia and Analgesia. 2009;108(1):255-262.

Norcini JJ, McKinley DW. Standard Setting. In: Dent J, Harden R, editors. A Practical Guide for Medical Teachers, 3rd ed. Edinburgh: Elsevier; 2009. p. 311-317.

Norcini J, Talati J. Assessment, surgeon, and society. International Journal of Surgery. 2009;7(4):313-317.

Nwobodo ED, Anyaehie UB, Nwobodo N, Awiwa C, Ofoegbu E, Okonkwo C, Aligekwe C, Burdick B. Students performance and perception of neurophysiology: feedback for innovative curricular reform in a Nigerian medical school. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences. 2009;24(1):63-66.

Raymond MR, Clauser BE, Swygert K, van Zanten M. Measurement precision of spoken English proficiency scores on the USMLE® Step 2 Clinical Skills Examination. Academic Medicine. 2009;84(10):S83-S85.

Sandella JM, Roberts WL, Gallagher LA, Gimpel JR, Langenau EE, Boulet JR. Patient note fabrication and consequences of unprofessional behavior in a high-stakes clinical skills licensing examination. Academic Medicine. 2009;84(10):S70-S73.

Shea JA, Bellini LM, McOwen KS, Norcini JJ. Setting standards for teaching evaluation data: an application of the contrasting groups method. Teaching and Learning in Medicine. 2009;21(2):82-86.

van Zanten M, Boulet JR. Medical education in the Caribbean: variability in Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduate certification rates and United States Medical Licensing Examination attempts. Academic Medicine. 2009;84(10):S13-S16.

van Zanten M, Parkins LM, Karle H, Hallock JA. Accreditation of undergraduate medical education in the Caribbean: report on the Caribbean Accreditation Authority for Education in Medicine and Other Health Professions (CAAM-HP). Academic Medicine. 2009;84(6):771-775.

Waldrop WB, Murray DJ, Boulet JR, Kras JF. Management of anesthesia equipment failure: a simulation-based resident skill assessment. Anesthesia and Analgesia. 2009;109(2):426-433.


Anshu, Bansal P, Mennin SG, Burdick WP, Singh T. Online faculty development for medical educators: Experience of a South Asian program. Education for Health. 2008;21(3):175.

Bonaminio GA, Leapman SB, Norcini JJ, Patel RM, Elnicki DM. The educational realities of increasing medical school class size. Academic Medicine. 2008;83(10):S101-S104.

Boulet J. Teaching to test or testing to teach. Medical Education. 2008;42(10):952-953.

Boulet JR. Summative assessment in medicine: the promise of simulation for high-stakes evaluation. Academic Emergency Medicine. 2008;15(11):1017-1024.

Boulet JR, Errichetti A. Training and assessment with standardized patients. In: Riley RH, editor. Manual of simulation in healthcare. New York: Oxford University Press; 2008. p. 181-197.

Boulet JR, Murray D, Kras J, Woodhouse J. Setting performance standards for mannequin-based acute care scenarios: an examinee centered approach. Simulation in Healthcare. 2008;3(2):72-81.

Boulet JR, van Zanten M, De Champlain A, Hawkins RE, Peitzman SJ. Checklist content on a standardized patient assessment: An ex post facto review. Advances in Health Sciences Education. 2008;13(1):59-69.

Hawkins RE, Boulet JR. Direct observation: Standardized patients. In: Holmboe ES, Hawkins RE, editors. Practical Guide to the Evaluation of Clinical Competence. Philadelphia: Mosby/Elsevier; 2008. p. 102-118.

Hoekje B, van Zanten M. Language and Communication. In: Alguire PC, Whelan GP, Rajput VN, editors. The International Medical Graduate’s Guide to US Medicine and Residency Training. Philadelphia: American College of Physicians; 2008. p. 69-88.

Jolly P, Garrison G, Boulet JR, Levitan T, Cooper RA. Three pathways to a physician career: Applicants to U.S. MD and DO schools and U.S. citizen applicants to international medical schools. Academic Medicine. 2008;83(12):1125-1131.

McKinley DW, Williams SR, Norcini JJ, Anderson MB. International exchange programs and U.S. medical schools. Academic Medicine. 2008;83(10):S53-S57.

Morahan PS, Fleetwood J. The double helix of activity and scholarship: Building a medical education career with limited resources. Medical Education. 2008;42(1):34-44.

Nishisaki A, Scrattish L, Boulet J, Kalsi M, Maltese M, Castner T, et al. Effect of cervical spine immobilization technique on pediatric advanced airway management: A high-fidelity infant simulation model. Pediatric Emergency Care. 2008;24(11):749-756.

Nishisaki A, Scrattish L, Boulet J, Kalsi M, Maltese M, Castner T, et al. Effect of recent refresher training on in Situ simulated pediatric tracheal intubation psychomotor skill performance. Advances in Patient Safety: New Directions and Alternative Approaches, Vol. 3. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2008 Aug. AHRQ Publication No. 08-0034-3.

Norcini JJ. Being smarter about SMARTER: A commentary on "A measurement tool for simulation-based training in emergency medicine: the simulation module for assessment of resident targeted event responses approach". Simulation in Healthcare. 2008;3(3):131-132.

Norcini JJ, Holmboe ES, Hawkins RE. Evaluation challenges in the era of outcomes-based education. In: Holmboe ES, Hawkins RE, editors. Practical Guide to the Evaluation of Clinical Competence. Philadelphia: Mosby/Elsevier; 2008. p. 1-9.

Norcini JJ, van Zanten M, Boulet JR. The contribution of international medical graduates to diversity in the U.S. physician workforce: Graduate medical education. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved. 2008;19(2):493-499.

Spillane L, Hayden E, Fernandez R, Adler M, Beeson M, Goyal D, Smith-Coggins R, Boulet J. The assessment of individual cognitive expertise and clinical competency: A research agenda. Academic Emergency Medicine. 2008;15(11):1071-1078.

van Zanten M, Boulet JR. Medical education in the Caribbean: Variability in medical school programs and performance of students. Academic Medicine. 2008;83(10):S33-S36.

van Zanten M, Norcini JJ, Boulet JR, Simon F. Overview of accreditation of undergraduate medical education programmes worldwide. Medical Education. 2008;42(9):930-937.

Worzala K, Rattner SL, Boulet JR, Majdan JF, Berg DD, Robeson M, Veloski JJ. Evaluation of the congruence between students’ postencounter notes and standardized patients’ checklists in a clinical skills examination. Teaching and Learning in Medicine. 2008;20(1):31-36.


Boulet J, Bede C, McKinley D, Norcini J. An overview of the world’s medical schools. Medical Teacher. 2007;29(1):20-26.

Boulet JR, McKinley DW, Rebbecchi T, Whelan GP. Does composition medium affect the psychometric properties of scores on an exercise designed to assess written medical communication skills? Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice. 2007;12(2):157-167.

Burdick W. Challenges and issues in health professions education in Africa. Medical Teacher. 2007;29(9):882-886

Burdick WP, Morahan PS, Norcini JJ. Capacity building in medical education and health outcomes in developing countries: the missing link. Education for Health. 2007;20(3):65.

Crossley J, Russell J, Jolly B, Ricketts C, Roberts C, Schuwirth L, Norcini J. ‘I’m pickin’ up good regressions’: The governance of generalisability analyses. Medical Education. 2007;41(10):926-934.

Gimpel JR, Weidner AC, Boulet JR, Wilson C, Errichetti A. Standardized patients and mechanical simulators in teaching and assessment at osteopathic medical schools. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 2007;107(12):557-561.

Hallock JA, McKinley DW, Boulet JR. Migration of doctors for undergraduate medical education. Medical Teacher. 2007;29(2&3):98-105.

Jafri W, Mumtaz K, Burdick WP, Morahan PS, Freeman R, Zehra T. Improving the teaching skills of residents as tutors/facilitators and addressing the shortage of faculty facilitators for PBL modules. BMC Medical Education. 2007;7:34.

Jamkar AV, Burdick W, Morahan P, Yemul VY, Sarmukadum, Singh G. Proposed model of case based learning for training undergraduate medical student in surgery. Indian Journal of Surgery. 2007;69(5):176-183.

Longombe AO, Burch V, Luboga S, Mkony C, Olapade-Olaopa EO, Otieno-Nyunya B, Afolabi B, Nwobodo E, Kiguli S, Burdick WP, Boulet JR, Morahan PS. Research on medical migration from sub-Saharan medical schools: usefulness of a feasibility process to define barriers to data collection and develop a practical study. Education for Health. 2007;20(1):27.

Murray DJ, Boulet JR, Avidan M, Kras JF, Henrichs B, Woodhouse J, Evers AS. Performance of residents and anesthesiologists in a simulation-based skill assessment. Anesthesiology. 2007;107(5):705-13.

Norcini JJ. Workplace-Based Assessment in Clinical Training. Understanding medical education. Edinburgh: ASME; 2007.

Norcini J, Burch V. Workplace-based assessment as an educational tool: AMEE Guide No. 31. Medical Teacher. 2007;29(9):855-71.

Norcini JJ, McKinley DW. Assessment methods in medical education. Teaching and Teacher Education. 2007;23(3):239-250.

Ottestad E, Boulet JR, Lighthall GK. Evaluating the management of septic shock using patient simulation. Critical Care Medicine. 2007;35(3):769-775.

van Zanten M, Boulet JR, McKinley DW. Using standardized patients to assess the interpersonal skills of physicians: Six years’ experience with a high-stakes certification examination. Health Communication. 2007;22(3):195-205.

van Zanten M, Boulet JR, McKinley DW, de Champlain A, Jobe AC. Assessing the communication and interpersonal skills of graduates of international medical schools as part of the USMLE Step 2 Clinical Skills (CS) Exam. Academic Medicine. 2007;82(10):S65-S68.

Vargas AL, Boulet JR, Errichetti A, van Zanten M, López MJ, Reta AM. Developing performance-based medical school assessment programs in resource-limited environments. Medical Teacher. 2007;29(2&3):192-198.


Archer J, Norcini J, Southgate L, Heard S, Davies H. mini-PAT (Peer Assessment Tool): A Valid Component of a National Assessment Programme in the UK? Advances in Health Sciences Education. Epub 2006 Oct 12.

Boulet JR, Norcini JJ, Whelan GP, Hallock JA, Seeling SS. The international medical graduate pipeline: Recent trends in certification and residency training. Health Affairs. 2006;25(2):469-477.

Boulet JR, Swanson DB, Cooper RA, Norcini JJ, McKinley DW. A comparison of the characteristics and examination performances of U.S. and non-U.S. citizen international medical graduates who sought Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates certification: 1995–2004. Academic Medicine. 2006;81(10):S116-S119.

Burdick WP, Morahan PS, Norcini JJ. Slowing the brain drain: FAIMER educational programs. Medical Teacher. 2006;28(7):631-634.

Cueto J, Burch VC, Mohd Adnan NA, Afolabi BB, Ismail Z, Jafri W, Olapade-Olaopa EO, Otieno-Nyunya B, Supe A, Togoo A, Vargas AL, Wasserman E, Morahan PS, Burdick W, Gary N. Accreditation of undergraduate medical training programs: Practices in nine developing countries as compared with the United States. Education for Health. 2006;19(2):207-222.

De Champlain A, Sample L, Dillon GF, Boulet JR. Modeling longitudinal performances on the United States Medical Licensing Examination and the impact of sociodemographic covariates: An application of survival data analysis. Academic Medicine. 2006;81(10):S108-S111.

De Champlain A, Swygert K, Swanson DB, Boulet JR. Assessing the underlying structure of the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 test of clinical skills using confirmatory factor analysis. Academic Medicine. 2006;81(10):S17-S20.

Errichetti A, Boulet JR. Comparing traditional and computer-based training methods for standardized patients. Academic Medicine. 2006;81(10):S91-S94.

Gimpel JR, Boulet JR, Weidner AC. Survey on the clinical skills of osteopathic medical students. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 2006;106(5):296-301.

Harik P, Clauser BE, Grabovsky I, Margolis MJ, Dillon GF, Boulet JR. Relationships among subcomponents of the USMLE Step 2 Clinical Skills Examination, the Step 1, and the Step 2 Clinical Knowledge Examinations. Academic Medicine. 2006;81(10):S21-S24.

McKinley DW, Boulet JR, Swanson DB, Swygert K, Scott C. Effects of case characteristics on encounter time in a high-stakes standardized patient examination. Academic Medicine. 2006;81(10):S61-S64.

Norcini J. Faculty observations of student professional behavior. In: Stern D, editor. Measuring Medical Professionalism. New York: Oxford University Press; 2006. p. 147-158.

Norcini J, Anderson MB, McKinley DW. The medical education of United States citizens who train abroad. Surgery. 2006;140(3):338-346.

Norcini JJ, McKinley DW, Boulet JR, Anderson MB. Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates certification and specialty board certification among graduates of the Caribbean medical schools. Academic Medicine. 2006;81(10):S112-S115.

Stern DT, Friedman Ben-David M, Norcini J, Wojtczak A, Schwarz MR. Setting school-level outcome standards. Medical Education. 2006;40(2):166–172.

Supe A, Burdick WP. Challenges and issues in medical education in India. Academic Medicine. 2006;81(12):1076-1080.

Wainer H, Brown LM, Bradlow ET, Wang X, Skorupski WP, Boulet J, Mislevy RJ. An application of Testlet Response Theory in the scoring of a complex certification exam. In: Williamson DM, Mislevy RJ, Bejar II, editors. Automated scoring of complex tasks in computer-based testing. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 2006. Chapter 6.


Archer JC, Norcini J, Davies HA. Use of SPRAT for peer review of paediatricians in training. British Medical Journal. 2005;330(7502):1251-1253.

Boulet JR. Generalizability theory: Basic concepts. In: Everitt BS, Howell DC, editors. Encyclopedia of Statistics in Behavioural Science. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons; 2005. p. 704-711.

Boulet JR, McKinley DW. Investigating gender-related construct-irrelevant components of scores on the written assessment exercise of a high-stakes certification assessment. Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice. 2005;10:53-63.

Hawkins RE, Swanson DB, Dillon GF, Clauser BE, King AM, Scoles PV, Whelan GP, Burdick WP, Boulet JR, Homan AG. The introduction of clinical skills assessment into the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE): A description of USMLE Step 2 Clinical Skills. Journal of Medical Licensure and Discipline. 2005;91(3):22-25.

McAvinue MB, Boulet JR, Kelly WC, Seeling SS, Opalek A. U.S. citizens who graduated from medical schools outside the United States and Canada and received certification from the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates, 1983-2002. Academic Medicine. 2005;80(5):473-478.

McKinley DW, Boulet JR. Using factor analysis to evaluate checklist items. Academic Medicine. 2005;80(10):S102-S105.

McKinley DW, Boulet JR, Hambleton RK. A work-centered approach for setting passing scores on performance-based assessments. Evaluation & the Health Professions. 2005;28(3):349-369.

Murray DJ, Boulet JR, Kras JF, McAllister JD, Cox TE. A simulation-based acute skills performance assessment for anesthesia training. Anesthesia and Analgesia. 2005;101(4):1127-1134.

Norcini J, Anderson MB. What the educators are saying. British Medical Journal. 2005;330(7488):405.

Norcini J, Burdick W, Morahan P. The FAIMER Institute: Creating international networks of medical educators. Medical Teacher. 2005;27(3):214-218.

Norcini JJ. Current perspectives in assessment: The assessment of performance at work. Medical Education. 2005;39(9):880-889.

Norcini JJ. The Mini Clinical Evaluation Exercise (mini-CEX). The Clinical Teacher. 2005;(2)1:25-30.

Norcini JJ. Standard setting. In: Dent JA, Harden RM, editors. A Practical Guide for Medical Teachers. Edinburgh: Elsevier Churchill Livingston; 2005. p. 293-301.

Norcini JJ. Where next with revalidation? British Medical Journal. 2005;330(7506):1458-1459.

Norcini JJ, Boulet JR, Whelan GP, McKinley DW. Specialty board certification among U.S. citizen and non-U.S. citizen graduates of international medical schools. Academic Medicine. 2005;80(10):S42-S45.

Norcini JJ, Mazmanian PE. Physician migration, education, and health care. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions. 2005;25(1):4-7.

van Zanten M, Boulet JR, Norcini JJ, McKinley DW. Using a standardised patient assessment to measure professional attributes. Medical Education. 2005;39(1):20-29.

Whelan GP, Boulet JR, McKinley DW, Norcini JJ, van Zanten M, Hambleton RK, Burdick WP, Peitzman SJ. Scoring standardized patient examinations: Lessons learned from the development and administration of the ECFMG Clinical Skills Assessment (CSA). Medical Teacher. 2005;27(3):200-206.


Boulet JR, Gimpel JR, Dowling DJ, Finley M. Assessing the ability of medical students to perform osteopathic manipulative treatment techniques. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 2004;104(5):203-211.

Boulet JR, Rebbecchi TA, Denton EC, McKinley DW, Whelan GP. Assessing the written communication skills of medical school graduates. Advances in Health Sciences Education. 2004;9(1):47-60.

Boulet JR, Swanson DB. Psychometric challenges of using simulations for high-stakes assessment. In: Dunn WF, editor. Simulators in critical care education and beyond. Des Plaines, IL: Society of Critical Care Medicine; 2004. p. 119-130.

De Champlain AF, Schoeneberger J, Boulet JR. Assessing the impact of examinee and standardized patient ethnicity on test scores in a large-scale clinical skills examination: gathering evidence for the consequential aspect of validity. Academic Medicine. 2004;79(10):S12-S14.

Dillon GF, Boulet JR, Hawkins RE, Swanson DB. Simulations in the United States Medical Licensing Examination™ (USMLE™). Quality and Safety in Health Care. 2004:13(Suppl 1):i41-i45.

McKinley DW, Boulet JR. Detecting score drift in a high-stakes performance-based assessment. Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice. 2004;9(1):29-38.

McKinley DW, Boulet JR. The effects of task sequence on examinee performance. Teaching and Learning in Medicine. 2004;16(1):18-22.

Murray DJ, Boulet JR, Kras JF, Woodhouse JA, Cox T, McAllister JD. Acute care skills in anesthesia practice: A simulation-based resident performance assessment. Anesthesiology. 2004;101(5):1084-1095.

Norcini JJ. Back to the future: Clinical vignettes and the measurement of physician performance. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2004;141(10):813-814.

van Zanten M, Boulet JR, McKinley DW. The influence of ethnicity on patient satisfaction in a standardized patient assessment. Academic Medicine. 2004;79(10):S15-S17.


Boulet JR, De Champlain AF, McKinley DW. Setting defensible performance standards on OSCEs and standardized patient examinations. Medical Teacher. 2003;25(3):245-249.

Boulet JR, Gimpel JR, Errichetti AM, Meoli FG. Using National Medical Care Survey data to validate examination content on a performance-based clinical skills assessment for osteopathic physicians. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 2003;103(5):225-231.

Boulet JR, McKinley DW, Whelan GP, Hambleton RK. The effect of task exposure on repeat candidate scores in a high-stakes standardized patient assessment. Teaching and Learning in Medicine. 2003; 15(4):227-232.

Boulet JR, McKinley DW, Whelan GP, Hambleton RK. Quality assurance methods for performance-based assessments. Advances in Health Sciences Education. 2003;8:27-47.

Boulet JR, Murray D, Kras J, Woodhouse J, McAllister J, Ziv A. Reliability and validity of a simulation-based acute-care skills assessment for medical students and residents. Anesthesiology. 2003;99(6):1270-1280.

Gimpel JR, Boulet JR, Errichetti AM. Evaluating the clinical skills of osteopathic medical students. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 2003;103(6):267-279.

Hallock JA, Seeling SS, Norcini JJ. The international medical graduate pipeline. Health Affairs. 2003;22(4):94-96.

Holmboe ES, Huot S, Chung J, Norcini JJ, Hawkins RE. Construct validity of the miniClinical Evaluation Exercise (miniCEX). Academic Medicine. 2003;78(8):826-830.

Lieberman SA, Frye AW, Litwins SD, Rasmusson KA, Boulet JR. Introduction of patient video clips into computer-based testing: effects on item statistics and reliability estimates. Academic Medicine. 2003;78(10):S48-S51.

Margolis MJ, Clauser BE, Swanson DB, Boulet JR. Analysis of the relationship between score components on a standardized patient clinical skills examination. Academic Medicine. 2003;78(10):S68-S71.

Muller ES, Harik P, Margolis M, Clauser B, McKinley D, Boulet JR. An examination of the relationship between clinical skills examination performance and performance on USMLE Step 2. Academic Medicine. 2003;78(10):S27-S29.

Norcini JJ. ABC of learning and teaching in medicine: Work based assessment. British Medical Journal. 2003;326(7392):753-755.

Norcini JJ. Peer assessment of competence. Medical Education. 2003;37(6):539-543.

Norcini JJ. Setting standards on educational tests. Medical Education. 2003;37(5):464-469.

Norcini JJ. Work based assessment. In: Cantillon P, Wood D, Hutchinson L, editors. ABC of learning and teaching in medicine. London: BMJ Publishing Group; 2003.

Norcini JJ, Blank LL, Duffy FD, Fortna GS. The mini-CEX: a method for assessing clinical skills. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2003;138(6):476-481.

Norcini J, Boulet J. Methodological issues in the use of standardized patients for assessment. Teaching and Learning in Medicine. 2003;15:293-297.

van Zanten M, Boulet JR, McKinley D, Whelan GP. Evaluating the spoken English proficiency of international medical graduates: detecting threats to the validity of standardised patient ratings. Medical Education. 2003;37(1):69-76.

van Zanten M, Boulet JR, McKinley DW. Correlates of performance of the ECFMG Clinical Skills Assessment: influences of candidate characteristics on performance. Academic Medicine. 2003;78(10):S72-S74.

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