An article authored by FAIMER President John Norcini and several other FAIMER staff members was the subject of a recent Key Literature in Medical Education (KeyLIME) podcast by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. The article, titled “The Relationship Between Licensing Examination Performance and the Outcomes of Care by International Medical School Graduates,” appeared in the August 2014 issue of Academic Medicine. The 20-minute podcast can be accessed on the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada website.
We are pleased to announce that FAIMER Fellow and faculty member Rashmi Vyas, M.B.B.S., M.D., M.H.P.E., has joined our staff in Philadelphia, as Cross Cultural Educationalist. Dr. Vyas is a 2003 FAIMER Institute Fellow. She serves on the faculty of the FAIMER Institute in Philadelphia, as well as the CMCL FAIMER, GSMC-FAIMER, and PSG-FAIMER Regional Institutes in India. She is also a 2005 International Fellowship in Medical Education (IFME) Fellow, and earned her Master’s Degree in Health Professions Education from the University of Illinois at Chicago in 2010.
Prior to joining FAIMER, Dr. Vyas worked as a Professor in the Department of Physiology at Christian Medical College (CMC), Vellore, India. Her main interests are in curriculum innovations, faculty development, program evaluation, and qualitative research. She was course organizer for the Post Graduate Diploma in Family Medicine for recent M.B.B.S. graduates, run by CMC Vellore. She also served as Convener for the Medical Council of India Regional Centre for National Faculty Development as well as the MCI Nodal Centre for advanced courses in medical education at CMC Vellore. Dr. Vyas has contributed as an expert in the curriculum development of basic and advanced courses in medical education at the Medical Council of India. She serves as a reviewer for many journals in health professions education.
In her role as Cross Cultural Educationalist, Dr. Vyas looks forward to working in the area of International Health Professions Education, with a focus on the cross cultural context. She will be involved in FAIMER’s existing education programs, including the FAIMER Institute and Regional Institutes; and will also be involved in the strategic planning of future FAIMER educational activities, educational projects and research, and the development of global programs. Through these efforts, Dr. Vyas hopes to contribute to FAIMER’s mission of improving the health of communities by improving health professions education.
FAIMER President and CEO John Norcini, Ph.D., has been selected to receive the 2014 Karolinska Institutet Prize for Research in Medical Education for his important contributions to research in medical education, especially his pioneering research on knowledge decay, specialty certification, and the development of new methods of assessment.
Dr. Norcini will receive the award and a prize amount of €50,000 at a ceremony in Stockholm, Sweden, on October 17.
This international prize is awarded for outstanding research in medical education. The purpose of the prize is to recognize and stimulate high-quality research in the field and to promote long-term improvements of educational practices in medical training. “Medical” includes all education and training for any health science profession. The prize is made possible through financial support from the Gunnar Höglund and Anna-Stina Malmborg Foundation. It is currently awarded every second year.
“Professor Norcini’s research output is consistently of the highest originality and quality, and his empirical work has improved the practice of medical education around the globe. His work has had a widespread, positive impact on the research and practice of medical education and has resulted in many subsequent studies by other researchers. He is one of the key contributors to the entire field of research in medical education,” says Professor Sari Ponzer, Chair of the Prize Committee.
For more information, please read the full press release.
Danette Waller McKinley, Ph.D., FAIMER’s Director for Research and Data Resources, has been elected Vice President of Division I, Education in the Professions, American Educational Research Association (AERA), effective in April 2015. The 12 divisions of AERA are organized to represent major scholarly or scientific areas within education research that add to the field and the Association as determined by the AERA Council. Division I focuses on the context and conduct of scientific studies that address education in professional practice disciplines, including medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, and nursing. The Division has a long history with AERA, from its beginning as a special interest group for health professions educators in 1971 to its divisional status approval in 1978. Given the emphasis on education and evaluation of education of professionals, the FAIMER Research staff has been involved in the work of the division for some time. Danette has been a longtime, active member of Division I as a paper submitter and reviewer, presenter, workshop organizer, member of the Established Investigator Awards Committee, and co-chair of the Division I Awards Committee. She was a member of the Division’s Planning Committee for the 2012 Annual Meeting, when FAIMER Associate Vice President for Research and Data Resources Jack Boulet was Program Chair. She has organized sessions supporting Division I’s Learning Communities initiative, and her work with the Awards Committee co-chair and the co-chairs of the Mentoring Committee resulted in a plan to showcase work in progress, engaging newer members of the division. Beginning in 2015, at the conclusion of the AERA Annual Meeting, Danette will represent the interests of Division I members as she serves as a member of the AERA Council. Her tenure as Vice President over the next three or more years will serve to increase the visibility, both nationally and internationally, of FAIMER and the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG) in the professional community.
The projected shortage of primary care physicians in the United States is well documented, and current trends indicate that the numbers of graduates of U.S. medical schools may not be sufficient to fill these roles. FAIMER Research Scientist Marta van Zanten and FAIMER Associate Vice President for Research and Data Resources John R. Boulet quantify the contribution that graduates of Caribbean medical schools make to the U.S. primary care workforce in their recently published paper:
van Zanten M, Boulet JR. Medical education in the Caribbean: The contribution of Caribbean-educated physicians to the primary care workforce in the United States. Academic Medicine. 2013;88(2):276-81
Findings in the study indicate that graduates of Caribbean medical schools make an important contribution to the U.S. primary care workforce. Specifically, the authors used the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile and ECFMG data to determine the numbers of physicians providing direct patient care. They classified these physicians according to type of medical school from which they graduated, and then calculated frequencies and percentages of self-designated primary care specialties for each physician classification. Results of the study show that graduates of Caribbean medical schools had the highest proportion of physicians practicing primary care, followed by D.O., all other IMGs, and lastly, graduates of U.S. M.D.-granting schools.
On December 12, 2012, former FAIMER intern Robbert J. Duvivier earned both his M.D. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Maastricht in the Netherlands. The title of Dr. Duvivier’s thesis is Teaching and Learning Clinical Skills: Mastering the Art of Medicine. He has worked with various international medical education organizations, such as the European Medical Students’ Association (EMSA) and the International Federation of Medical Students’ Associations (IFMSA). He has also represented medical students as part of the executive committee of the Association for Medical Education in Europe (AMEE), and the executive council of the World Federation for Medical Education (WFME). Beginning in January 2013, Dr. Duvivier will join the FAIMER Research and Data Resources department as a visiting scholar.
Health professions educators from around the world gathered in Coimbatore, India, September 5-8, 2012, to share ideas and experiences at the joint meeting of the World Federation for Medical Education’s (WFME) South East Asia Regional Association for Medical Education (SEARAME) and India’s National Conference on Health Professions Education (NCHPE). The theme of the meeting was “Social Accountability: Responding to Societal Needs through Quality Assurance and Accreditation in Health Professions Education.” Conference objectives were to:
- Apply principles of social accountability to the Southeast Asian context
- Identify and bridge gaps between current health sciences education systems and health care needs of society in the region
- Create consensus on the missions and strategies of health sciences schools related to improving the health of society in Southeast Asia
- Identify evaluation tools for assessing impact of changes to the missions and strategies of health sciences schools toward improving the health of society
- Link WFME standards addressing social accountability with regional standards for health sciences education
SEARAME NCHPE 2012 was sponsored by FAIMER and included notable contributions from FAIMER faculty and Fellows. FAIMER Associate Vice President for Education and Co-Director of the FAIMER Institute William Burdick delivered a keynote address on the “Future of Health Professions Education.” FAIMER faculty member Anand Zachariah (PHIL 2001) delivered a keynote address on “Making Curricula Relevant to Health System Needs” and participated in a panel discussion on “How Medical Schools Can Contribute to Retaining Health Professionals in Rural, Remote, and Underserved Areas in Southeast Asia.” FAIMER faculty member Ramalingam Sankaran (PHIL 2009) participated in a panel discussion on “How Do We Translate Social Accountability into Action in Southeast Asia?”
Workshops conducted by FAIMER faculty and Fellows (both in bold type) included:
Assessment for Learning
Tejinder Singh (PHIL 2003, IFME 2006), Dinesh Badyal (CMCL 2007, PHIL 2009), Hemangini Shah (GSMC 2008)
Community-based Teaching for Primary Health Care
Thomas V. Chacko (PHIL 2004, IFME 2006), Saira Banu (PSG 2007), Ranjana Sahasrabude (PSG 2009)
Curriculum Implementation Support Program (CISP) for MCI’s Basic Course Trainers
Avinash Supe (PHIL 2002, IFME 2007), Payal Bansal (PHIL 2007, IFME 2010), Anshu (CMCL 2007, PHIL 2009)
Early Clinical Exposure (ECE): Bringing Social Relevance and Context to Basic Science Teaching
Rashmi Vyas (PHIL 2003, IFME 2005), Sucheta Dandekar (PHIL 2010), Praveen Singh (CMCL 2008)
Leader as a Coach—for Curriculum Change
Elango Sambandam (PHIL 2010), William Burdick, Henal Shah (GSMC 2006, IFME 2010)
Measuring Change towards Social Accountability in Your Institution
A-J Neusy, Rita Sood (PHIL 2005), Robert Woollard, Shafik Dharamsi
Moving towards Social Accountability: Facilitating Change in Your Institution
Robert Woollard, Shafik Dharamsi, Rita Sood (PHIL 2005), A-J Neusy
On-line Learning: Using Moodle to Supplement Teaching-Learning
Supten Sarbadhikari (PSG 2007), Sanjay Bedi (CMCL 2007), Indika Karunatilake
Problem-based Learning in the South-East Asian Context
P. T. Jayawickramarajah, Medha Joshi
Qualitative Methods for Community Needs Assessment (Towards Social Accountability)
Amol Dongre (PSG 2008), P.R. Deshmukh, Kalaiselvan Ganapathy (PSG 2011)
Teaching Communication Skills: Breaking Bad News
J.P. Agrawal, Payal Bansal (PHIL 2007, IFME 2010)
Validating of Assessment Tools (OSCE/OSPE) Used in Competency-based Education
Shital Bhandary (PSG 2008), Satish Raj Ghimire, Katrina Butterworth
SEARAME NCHPE 2012 focused on working toward real and lasting improvements in health professions education for the Southeast Asia region and for India in particular. Among the many positive outcomes is a set of Conference Recommendations developed by participants and delivered to health professions colleges and appropriate government agencies throughout Southeast Asia. For more information on the conference, please visit the SEARAME NCHPE 2012 website.
Accreditation of medical schools is generally accepted as important, yet little has been published about its impact. FAIMER Research Scientist Marta van Zanten and FAIMER Director of Research and Data Resources Danette McKinley, along with colleagues Irene Durante Montiel (PHIL 2008) and Concepcion V. Pijano, explore the impact of accreditation in Mexico and the Philippines in their recently published paper:
van Zanten M, McKinley D, Durante Montiel I, Pijano CV. Medical education in Mexico and the Philippines: impact on student outcomes. Medical Education. 2012;46(6):568-592.
Findings in the study support the value of accreditation in medical education. The authors specifically examined the performance of a sample of registrants who took at least one of the three United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE®) components required for Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG) Certification, along with another sample of registrants who took all three components. All registrants were from Mexico and the Philippines. Results of the study show that, although there were differences in performance between the two countries, first attempt pass rates on all components were higher for individuals attending accredited medical schools from both countries. In addition, a higher success rate in obtaining ECFMG Certification was associated with registrants from accredited schools in the Philippines who took all three components.
By 2023, physicians applying for ECFMG Certification will be required to graduate from a medical school that has been accredited through a formal process that uses criteria comparable to those established for U.S. medical schools by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) or that uses other globally accepted criteria, such as those put forth by the World Federation for Medical Education (WFME). For more information on the Medical School Accreditation Requirement for ECFMG Certification, please visit www.ecfmg.org/accreditation.
FAIMER Research Scientist Marta van Zanten graduated in May 2012 from the College of Health Professions and Social Work at Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, with a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degree in Public Health. The title of her dissertation was “The Association between Medical Education Accreditation and the Examination Performance of Internationally Educated Physicians Seeking Certification in the United States.” Dr. van Zanten investigated the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE®) first-attempt pass rates of all international medical graduates (IMGs) who took one or more examinations leading to ECFMG Certification from 2006-2010 based on the IMG’s medical school accreditation status. Results showed that overall, IMGs who attended an accredited medical school performed better on examinations compared to their peers from non-accredited schools. Accreditation had the strongest association with USMLE performance for IMGs who attended medical schools located in the Caribbean.
In the second phase of this study, the quality of a select group of accrediting agencies was evaluated according to criteria determined by a panel of experts to be the most salient features of an accreditation system. IMGs who attended medical schools with overall higher quality accreditation systems performed better on two of three USMLE examinations. Specific accreditation criteria were associated with better performance on all three examinations. This study lends some support to the value of accreditation globally by linking these systems to improved student outcomes.
FAIMER staff members Jack Boulet, Associate Vice President for Research and Data Resources; Danette McKinley, Director, Research and Data Resources; and Marta van Zanten, Research Associate, have been appointed to key positions in Division I of the American Educational Research Association (AERA). Division I – Education in the Professions, is dedicated to promoting research and scholarship in education internationally across professions such as architecture, business, dentistry, engineering, law, medicine, nursing, pharmacy, physical therapy, and teaching. It furthers its mission by supporting scholarly presentations and publications, providing opportunities for professional growth, enhancing communication and outreach, and promoting educational research to inform policy and practice.
Dr. Boulet is serving as Chair of the Division I Program Committee for the 2012 AERA Annual Meeting. The theme of the meeting is “Satis Scire: To Know Is Not Enough,” and it will be held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, April 13-17, 2012. This year, Division I received 119 individual paper and eight symposia submissions. The Division I Program Selection Committee met on October 10, 2011, to discuss and synthesize the many reviews, develop paper session themes, and finalize the program. The program will focus on the development of meaningful educational and assessment programs that go beyond the acquisition and evaluation of knowledge to performance and demonstrated service to the public good.
Dr. McKinley is serving as Co-Chair of the Awards Committee along with Summers Kalishman of the University of New Mexico School of Medicine.
Ms. van Zanten is serving as Editor of PERQ (Professions Education Research Quarterly), the Division I newsletter. The most recent edition of the newsletter, which is the first edition edited by Ms. van Zanten, can be found here.
FAIMER faculty member Ara Tekian of the University of Illinois at Chicago School of Medicine is Vice President of Division I. He was elected to a four-year term beginning in 2009. For more information on AERA Division I, please visit the Division I section of the AERA website.